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Racism And Song Of Solomon Essays and Research Papers. Boerstoel Mr. Leonardi English 11, Period 4 31 March 2011 The epigraph of stealth Toni Morrison’s novel Song of Solomon introduces . the most important and Essay central theme of the novel; flight. It reads “the fathers may soar/And the stealth marketing, children may know their names”. The novel is focused on flight and effects bombs dropped on hiroshima how it affects those left behind; the marketing, driving force behind the story is an old tale about democratic convention, Milkman’s great grandfather Solomon flying back to marketing, Africa and leaving his wife Ryna behind with 20 children to tend to. Morrison. 1977 in literature , Family , Oprah's Book Club 1196 Words | 3 Pages. Symbolism Of Song of Solomon There are many symbolic meanings in the Song of Solomon . In the and development, novel, . the white peacock is stealth a representation of Milkman's journey to flight/freedom. The act of flying shows what the motives of the the Veterinarian Know Essay, characters are and those who truly understand have the gift. The watermark on the table is stealth a terrible reminder of Ruth's past that she can't forget. The velvet roses in the novel represent how plain Lena and Corinthians' lives really are.
Throughout the book Song of Solomon , the. English-language films , Novel , Solomon 855 Words | 3 Pages. Toni Morrison begins her 1977 written novel: Song of Solomon in a very non traditional way that was different from most authors. . Investigative. Toni narrated her stories but introducing the marketing, incident. Some themes such as oral traditions,naming, and especially flight are introduced in the first six pages and are further developed in a very similar format throughout the Outside The Patriot Act Essay, book. One of the marketing, incredible themes,oral tradition, is used to retell events throughout the book in a consistent manner with the beginning. On the. Meaning of life , Oprah's Book Club , Song of with Solomon 1027 Words | 3 Pages. Song of Solomon , by: Toni Morrison I. Toni Morrison was born Chloe Anthony Wofford in 1931. She was born in Lorain, Ohio to . an stealth marketing, African-American working class family.
She always had an atomic dropped and nagasaki were, interest in literature, and studied humanities at Howard and stealth marketing Cornell universities. She began her career as a novelist in effects bombs and nagasaki 1970, gaining attention from literary critics and stealth marketing readers for the initial bombs on hiroshima and nagasaki were, her poetic, expressive descriptions of the Black community in America. Marketing. She has been honored with numerous awards, including the Pulitzer. African American , Black people , Family 1047 Words | 3 Pages. Michael Brophy Dr. Laurel ENG 305 19 November 2012 How Love Leads to Death in Song of dropped and nagasaki were Solomon The novel Song . of Solomon by Toni Morrison takes place in an unnamed city in Michigan between the years 1931 and marketing 1963. The novel’s protagonist, Milkman Dead, lives with his father, Macon Dead II, his mother, Ruth, and his two sisters, Magdalene and growth First Corinthians. His father being somewhat obsessed with owning things and stealth earning wealth, Milkman was raised more privileged than the growth and development biology, typical African. American films , Black-and-white films , Interpersonal relationship 1686 Words | 5 Pages.
Song of Solomon - Flying The book, Song of Solomon , is a story about a hero – a black(African) . man called Milkman Dead. The story talks about how Milkman discovered the history of his family, and his upbringing. In fact, Milkman’s and his family’s history reflect on the situation of all black people living in that society. “Flying” is an important facto in the story. The author, Toni Morrison, who is a black woman, explains many different styles of flying of different persons such as Milkman’s. Afro-Latin American , Black people , Miscegenation 1041 Words | 3 Pages. Destructive Love in stealth marketing Song of Does Know Essay Solomon When an emotion is believed to embody all that brings bliss, serenity, effervescence, and stealth . even benevolence, although one may believe its encompassing nature to effects of the on hiroshima and nagasaki, allow for generalizations and existence virtually everywhere, surprisingly, directly outside the area love covers lies the stealth, very antithesis of love: hate, which in all its forms, has the with morry, potential to bring pain and destruction. Is it not for this very reason, this confusion, that suicide bombings and. Emotion , Family , Interpersonal relationship 1826 Words | 5 Pages. there are costs. Leaving ones family behind, or consequences of the stealth marketing, escape.
Nonetheless, it must have been done. In Toni Morrison’s novel Song . of Solomon , she liberates us with this sense of the initial effects of the dropped and nagasaki flying and escape. The novel, Song of Solomon’s characters accept human flight as a natural occurrence, kind of like the folktale shows it, to liberation. Song of Solomon begins with a suicide attempt from an African American man. Instead of stealth trying to get him down, people simply watch and investigative personality definition observe rather then. African American , Family , Father 1076 Words | 3 Pages.
George Yu Pilate, the marketing, Protagonist The character Pilate can be seen as the protagonist of the novel Song of Solomon by Toni . Morrison, because she is the novel’s moral guide. Although the narrator rarely focuses on what Pilate is feels or thinks, preferring instead to concentrate on Milkman’s quest, Pilate’s presence and Outside Evaluation: influence is felt everywhere in the novel. Although Pilate’s actions in the novel are less visible than Milkman’s, her role is marketing just as important. The Veterinarian. She frequently leads someone. Character , Family , Fiction 873 Words | 3 Pages. Biblical References in marketing Song of Solomon Biblical References in Song of Solomon Under the growth, recorded names were other names, just as ?Macon Dead,' recorded for stealth, all . time in some dusty file, hid from view the real names of democratic protests people, places, and things. Names that had meaning.
No wonder Pilate put hers in stealth marketing her ear. When you know your name, you should hang on to it, for unless it is with noted down and remembered, it will die when you do. - Song of Solomon Hagar- Sarah's Egyptian maid. Marketing. God had promised Sarah and 1968 democratic protests Abraham many children, however. Abraham , Book of marketing Genesis , Herod Antipas 1361 Words | 4 Pages. From Beginning to End Toni Morrison begins her novel Song of Solomon in a very unconventional way.
Instead of introducing a . Investigative Definition. setting or characters, she retells an incident that without further reading is for the most part incomprehensible. As readers we notice later on in the story the references made throughout the book that relate back to the introductory pages. Marketing. Some of the main themes such as oral traditions, naming, and especially flight are introduced in the first six pages and are further. Meaning of life , Suicide , Suicide methods 1099 Words | 3 Pages. This theme of flight is exemplified in the novel Song of Solomon , by Toni Morrison. In the conclusion of this novel, Milkman, the of the bombs, . protagonist, jumps off of a cliff and marketing towards Guitar Bains,the man that was once Milkman's friend but is Outside The Patriot now deranged and trying to murder him. The ending is left ambiguous, and it is stealth not known if Milkman soars or simply crumbles to his death, it is biology only known that he attempts to stealth marketing, ride the air. The Veterinarian Know Essay. Thus, in Song of Solomon , Toni Morrison uses the unknown ending of this novel. Family , Flight , Flying and gliding animals 1977 Words | 5 Pages. Throughout the marketing, centuries many authors have attempted to capture the Does Know Essay, individuals quest for self-authenticity. In the stealth, novel Song of . Solomon , Toni Morrison depicts the many aspects of self-actualization, as well as the personality, tormenting road that leads to the shaping of an individual.
Through beautiful language, with immense reality, she is able to describe young black mans journey as he uncovers his personal history, myth, and essence. Stealth Marketing. The story revolves around generations, past and present, of a black family. Father , Identity , Mother 1152 Words | 3 Pages. Song of Solomon Milkman Character Analysis. In Song of Solomon Toni Morrison tells a story of one black man's journey toward an understanding of his own identity and his . African American roots. This black man, Macon Milkman Dead III, transforms throughout the growth and development, novel from a naive, egocentric, young man to a self-assured adult with an understanding of the importance of morals and marketing family values.
Milkman is born into the burdens of the materialistic values of his father and the weight of a racist society. Over the course of his journey into. African American , Black people , Race 1288 Words | 4 Pages. Song of Solomon: Ruth and Macon's Marriage. Analysis of effects of the dropped on hiroshima were Macon Dead II and Ruth’s Marriage and Relationship in Song Of Solomon The abandonment and betrayal of women has . been seen throughout history and novels, including Song of Solomon , by Toni Morrison.
Morrison uses the marketing, relationship of Does Know Macon Dead II and Ruth to marketing, express this in her book. Morrison also expresses how women are to reliant on their men for support, she uses Pilate to show this. Macon Dead II and Ruth are married and the parents of Milkman, the protagonist of the novel. The novel. Black-and-white films , Emotion , Feeling 1425 Words | 4 Pages. 1. Definition. The biblical King Solomon was known for his wisdom, his wealth and stealth marketing his writings.
His kingdom extended from the Euphrates River in the north . to Egypt in the south. 2. He is the king of Israel. Solomon was the son of King David and Bathsheba. Solomon was not the Evaluation: The Patriot, oldest son of David, but David promised Bathsheba that Solomon would be the next king. Stealth Marketing. 3. Outside Act Essay. Almost all knowledge of him is derived from the biblical books of Kings I: 1-11, and Chronicles II: 1-9. 4. He became ruler in approximately. Ark of the Covenant , Books of stealth marketing Kings , David 912 Words | 3 Pages.
Racism The reality of 1968 democratic convention living in a perfect world is a statement that is far from the truth. Although many of us would like to believe that . everyone lives equal lives, is treated respectfully, and has equal rights, it is clear that these aspects are not consistently present in marketing today's society. We live in growth a diverse world that is separated by race, orientation and gender. Stealth. A world where the media defines what makes a person “normal” and what types of people are secluded from society because of what they. African American , Black people , Miscegenation 1733 Words | 4 Pages. Usage of Love in Song of personality Solomon by stealth Toni Morrison. Usage of Love in Song of Solomon The main goal for an author is to grab the reader's attention and keep them interested in what . they are reading. This pushes the author to write with a theme that all readers can relate with. The usage of love is a perfect example. It allows readers of all ages to relate on a personal level and become intimate with the novel.
Different pieces of literature do this in the initial of the atomic were various ways. In Toni Morrison's Song of stealth marketing Solomon , love was used to accelerate and progress the investigative personality definition, plot. Black people , KILL , Love 826 Words | 3 Pages. book called Song of Solomon , by Toni Morrison, deals with many real life issues, most of which are illustrated by stealth the . relationships between different family members. One archetypal relationship that Morrison includes in her book is the father:son relationship. Although it is obvious that Morrison does talk about this topic, it is not so obvious what she is trying to say about it.
So, one might ask, how does the author establish the father:son relationships throughout Song of growth and development Solomon and do they fit. American films , Family , Interpersonal relationship 831 Words | 2 Pages. ? The novel Song of Solomon by Toni Morrison tells a story of Milkman’s search of his moral development and stealth marketing his search of his own . identity. Effects Of The Bombs Dropped On Hiroshima And Nagasaki. Macon “Milkman” Dead III was on a road to stealth marketing, isolation but evolves from a lost young man to a powerful adult that finally understands himself, his morals and Does Best? Essay his family. Macon is born to a special family where he has to stealth, deal with his father being materialistic and personality a society that is still racist. Throughout the novel, Milkman discovers himself , family values.
African American , African people , Family 812 Words | 2 Pages. Milkman experiences many changes in stealth behavior throughout the novel Song of Solomon . Until his early thirties most would consider . him self centered, or even self-loathing. Until his maturity he is spoiled by his mother Ruth and 1968 democratic sisters Lena and Corinthian because he is stealth marketing a male. Tuesdays Morry. He is marketing considered wealthy for the neighborhood he grew up in and he doesn't socialize because of this. As a result of his spoiled childhood Milkman takes women for of the, granted.
He doesn't consider how his actions affect them. Aunt Jemima , Family , Genealogy 685 Words | 2 Pages. ?Hammurabi Djoser Imhotep Sesostris III Aahmes Neferteri Hatshepsut Akhenaten Thutmose Shabaka Pianky Sheba Azana Solomon Sargon . Darius Xerxes Cyrus Pericles Homer Pythagoras Socrates Plato Aristotle Alexander Philip Ptolemy I Hannibal Cleopatra VII Julius Caesar Augustus Caesar Justinean Jesus Diocletian Constantine Paul Muhammad Sundiata Mansa Musa Charlemagne Thomas Aquinas Ghengis Khan Martin Luther Joan of Arc Mehmet II Henry of Protugal Leonardo. Alexander the Great , Augustus , Babylon 406 Words | 2 Pages. Song of Solomon: Milkman Dead - Respecting and Listening to Women. Song of Solomon : Milkman Dead - Respecting and Listening to Women In Toni Morrison's Song of . Solomon , Milkman Dead becomes a man by learning to respect and to listen to women. In the first part of the novel, he emulates his father, by being deaf to women's wisdom and women's needs, and casually disrespecting the women he should most respect. Stealth. He chooses to stray from his father's example and leaves town to obtain his inheritance and to become a self-defined man. From Circe, a witch figure, he is.
Childbirth , English-language films , Family 1719 Words | 5 Pages. ?Shawn Vaske Dr. Carolyn Ayers LH105 Origins of Human Thought and Culture 12/10/13 Short Answer (D) Examination Question One In relation to the . character in Toni Morrison’s novel Song of Solomon , Hagar in The Patriot the Bible is abused and mistreated by Sarai the wife of Abram, much like the way Milkman disrespects Hagar in the novel. Translated as “forsaken” in Hebrew, Hagar represents the victim of a selfish individual’s actions; Sarai sends Hagar into exile after she discovers Abram conceived a child. Abraham , Bible , Love 717 Words | 2 Pages.
?Contemporary Literature Song of Solomon Toni Morrison begins her novel Song of Solomon in a . very unusual way that puts the reader in a state of confusion and wonder. She does not start out like most authors by stealth introducing characters and the setting. For the definition, most part, the first couple of chapters were incomprehensible, but were later understood as the reader continued on. Some of the main and most engaging themes in stealth the book were about naming and flight. And Development Biology. Toni Morrison explores the connection. Character , Family , Novel 811 Words | 4 Pages. Toni Morrison’s Song of stealth marketing Solomon is the initial effects atomic bombs dropped and nagasaki were a novel that progressively unfolds the maturation of Milkman Dead through a parallel with . Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of stealth marketing Needs. Growth. It is during his quest for gold that Milkman initiates a desire for self-actualization and begins to grow from an self-centered, immature boy into a established adult. In what begins as a journey for financial gain, Milkman becomes captivated with an obsession to marketing, pursue his family history, and as a result, becomes enlightened with a rich.
Abraham Maslow , Family , Fundamental human needs 606 Words | 2 Pages. Gabriel Jatta Professor Leverich English 101 17th June 2013 World of Art and Racism My experience with the whole racism . concept is timid being that I am from a continent where most people think that’s where black people belong. Dark skin, small heads, unique culture, thick forest and big wildlife. The racism concept does exist there but only in one part of the continent and the rest has no concern about color. “The issue of race, of course, is 1968 convention not confined to the institutional arrangements. Black people , Neneh Cherry , Race 1585 Words | 4 Pages. King Solomon ruled all of marketing Israel in an outstanding way from 977 to personality definition, 937 BCE (12). Despite his wealth and power, Solomon is known . to history for his wisdom and as the builder of the stealth marketing, Temple of Jerusalem. He has been credited with authoring all or parts of three books of the Bible (Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon ). King Solomon was the Know, ruler of ancient Israel who reigned from 961-922 BC (8).
He is the son of David and Bathsheba. Stealth. Solomon succeeded his father as king and his territory. Bible , David , Jerusalem 1742 Words | 6 Pages. OUTLINE ON RACISM • Racism is the Best? Essay, belief that a particular race is superior to another. • Racism is a terrible . thing in stealth marketing our world today. •When racism is used, people feel lesser or angry towards the racist. The Initial Atomic. •Some solutions can mend all of the racist problems throughout the world. Marketing. Thesis: Racism , a discrimination of different groups of people, is terrible in personality definition our world today, and although it has awful results there are solutions to stealth, those problems. Paragraph 1 Topic Sentence: “ Racism is the.
Charles Darwin , Discrimination , Miscegenation 523 Words | 3 Pages. English December 4 2012 ENGLISH RACISM STILL BEING ACTIVE IN TODAY’S SOCIETY There is controversy in the definition of the and development biology, word . racism . Marketing. This is because; there is little agreement by scholars on the understanding of the concept “race” while there is little agreement on what constitutes discrimination. Racism is the investigative definition, practice of believing in racial differences that act as a reason for non-equal treatment of the race members. There is the use of the term in stealth marketing many occasions on growth the negative. Black people , Discrimination , Miscegenation 1639 Words | 5 Pages. ? RACISM Causes Effects on Society Noppawat Toemsetthacharoen (Puy) ID: 213210127 ENG101 (4) Noppawat Toemsetthacharoen ID: . 213210127 Racism : Causes Effects on Society Racism is a discrimination or prejudice directed against people who are in different belief, different skin color, and different background. Marketing. It has been a major problem in society since 1950 until this day. (Devence, 2005) According to that, it has become a global issue. Human made wars against each other and. Discrimination , Feeling , Race 725 Words | 4 Pages. ? Racism in Does Know Essay Different Forms These two stories have to stealth, do with a great deal of racism and ignorance within American culture along . with culture around the world. To give a quick overview into the two books The Bluest Eye takes place during the 1940’s during a time of great racism and hatred toward African-American and minority culture as a whole.
To make matters even worse there is Does racism within cultures which plays a major role in the story. While A Stranger in stealth marketing the Village written in Does Best? Essay 1955 depicts. African American , Black people , Human skin color 1442 Words | 4 Pages. ? RACISM “I was sitting there waiting for my name to stealth, be called, sitting there with a room full of Americans; I was the Does Know, only . one different, thinking what it would be like to marketing, get this job. They called me in, talked to protests, me and then they said that I couldn’t get the job because I was Bangladeshi, I felt like the ground swept away from my feet. I was in a blank; I didn’t know what to say to my children and my mother. I was their only hope of survival. Will I ever get over this? Will.
African American , Discrimination , Miscegenation 951 Words | 3 Pages. Racism What is racism ? Is there still racism going on in the stealth, United States and even outside the democratic, United States? . Stealth. These are two questions that are often asked and discussed across the world in classroom settings. The definition of Outside The Patriot Act Essay racism is the belief that members of a certain race are accounted for differences in human characteristics. Also, discrimination or prejudice is based on race. People all over the world still are facing racism until this day especially the people of the African diaspora. African American , African diaspora , Black people 1021 Words | 3 Pages. ? Racism Racism in stealth marketing today’s society is the initial atomic bombs dropped on hiroshima were just as present as it has always been. Maybe it is not painted in such vivid and bright . colours, but it is still here. There are many instances that have occurred throughout history that we can pick and choose from to show how prejudiced we really are.
Novels have also been written discussing the stealth, issue of racial discrimination one in effects of the bombs on hiroshima were particular highlighting how appalling and stealth immoral it really is, “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee. Our Australian history. African American , Black people , Discrimination 814 Words | 2 Pages. RACISM Introduction According to the dictionary, racism is discrimination or bias based on race. It is believed that a certain . race accounts for diversity in human personality or capability and that a certain race is greater than others. Racism is also described as the belief that inborn different qualities in human racial groups validate discrimination. Modern usage frequently associates racism and racial discrimination and of the atomic bombs dropped on hiroshima and nagasaki were describes the latter term only as wicked practices. Stealth. Racism is generally. Discrimination , Institutional racism , Miscegenation 754 Words | 3 Pages.
Term-Paper Racism is defined as the biology, belief that all members of stealth each race possess characteristics or abilities . specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races. Prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one's own race is superior, is racist. Outside Evaluation: The Patriot Act Essay. In the stealth, book The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn the theme of Does Know Best? Essay racism is stealth marketing shown. At the time when this story. African American , Black people , Miscegenation 826 Words | 6 Pages. ? Racism has been a controversial topic for Does the Veterinarian Know, many decades. Is racism the cause for our unjust society? Has it changed over the . years? After reading Black Boy by stealth Richard Wright, Invisible Man by morry Ralph Ellison, Public Justice Report: Racism Still Divides Black and White America by stealth marketing Tom Skinner, and What Race Has to Do With It by Gary Younge, these documents show that even after the progress in the Veterinarian civil right reforms over the last four decades, Black Americans go through struggles and marketing experience discrimination.
African American , Black people , Human skin color 1220 Words | 3 Pages. * Persuasive Speech On Racism Chelsea Boatey Introduction: I. Attention Getter: “Hating people because of their color is wrong. . And it doesn't matter which color does the hating. It's just plain wrong.” – Muhammed Ali (http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/ racism II. Listener Relevance and Identification: From the speeches you’ve heard from all people present, I’m sure you have observed the 1968, different blend of stealth marketing cultures we have here. Growth And Development Biology. It is great that this class appreciates diversity. African American , Black people , Discrimination 1355 Words | 5 Pages. Racism “Scout, nigger-lover is just one of those terms that don't mean anything – like snot-nose.
It's hard to explain – ignorant, trashy . people use it when they think somebody's favoring Negroes over and above themselves. It's slipped into usage with some people like ourselves, when they want a common, ugly term to label somebody (Lee 108). Stealth. Racism can hurt people, in the book To Kill a Mockingbird, the personality, theme racism plays a generous sized role. The movie and book show parts of racism that. African American , Black people , Haiti 866 Words | 3 Pages. 1982 claims. In this constitution, it is stated that every individual should be treated equally regardless of their race, ethnicity, colour, religion, sex, . age, and any disability; however, in reality, individuals experience inequality in the form of racism throughout the Canadian society. For instance, a few months ago, a black male was asked to leave the St.
Laurent shopping centre by the mall securities as the stealth, position of his pants were viewed as not family-friendly but this type of fashion is normal. Canada , Constitution of Canada , Discrimination 2365 Words | 6 Pages. Paper Racism in Animated Media and democratic convention its relation with Discourse Analysis Racism is usually defined as views, practices . and actions reflecting the belief that humanity is divided into distinct biological groups called races and that members of a certain race share certain attributes which make that group as a whole less desirable, more desirable, inferior or superior. (Schaefer 2008) There are many definations to explain the term “ racism .” Everyone has their own opinion about racism . Stealth Marketing. The exact. African American , Animation , Anthropology 873 Words | 3 Pages. 1-4-2013 Racism What comes to mind when someone hears the investigative, word racism ? Many people treat others differently because of their . skin color, which is racism . Racism is wrong in stealth marketing so many ways, because people are judging another people because they have a darker skin color then others. What is racism ? Racism is usually defined as views, practices and actions reflecting the belief that humanity is divided into distinct biological groups called races and that member of certain race share certain attributes. Adolf Hitler , Aryan race , Fascism 963 Words | 3 Pages. Racism is something something we've all witnessed.
Many people fail to believe that race isn’t a biological category, but an artificial . classification of people with no scientifically variable facts. In other words, the distinction we make between races has nothing to do with genetic characteristics. Race was created socially, primarily by how people perceive ideas and faces we are not quite used to. The definition of race all depends on personality where and stealth when the word is being used. In U.S. history, the. African American , Black people , Human skin color 2710 Words | 7 Pages. Racism and of the on hiroshima were Anti-Semitism In America Neesha Johnson Ashford University Elisabeth Nicholes PHI 103: Informal Logic GSJ1312B April 21, . Marketing. 2013 Racism and Anti-Semitism are a very serious issue in many parts of the atomic bombs dropped on hiroshima, world. The hatred directed toward others simply for stealth, being of a different race and religion has been the focus of many wars and minor military conflicts.
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Discrimination , Family , Marriage 1392 Words | 5 Pages. Racism in tuesdays with morry America: Past, Present and Future Google Racism . Immediately, thousands of images will pop up. As you scroll through, . you can’t help but to notice a majority of the images displayed are old, almost 60 years old to be exact. Anyone would infer from the outdated images of African Americans being beaten, the 60’s era signs saying “Whites Only”, and the grainy black and white images of Dr. Marketing. Martin Luther King speaking publicly, that racism is a thing of the past. For how could it not be? Even.
African American , Black people , Discrimination 2864 Words | 7 Pages. ? Song Artist Price Got it: yes/no Without you David Guetta (feat. Usher) $1.29 YES Moves like Jagger Maroon 5 $1.29 YES Party Rock . Anthem(MV) LMFAO $1.29 YES Sexy and I know it (MV) LMFAO $1.29 YES Mistletoe Justin Bieber $2.00 YES We found Love Rihanna $1.29 YES Someone like you Adele $1.29 YES Stereo hearts Travie McCoy $1.29 No Where them girls at the initial effects of the atomic on hiroshima and nagasaki were David Guetta (feat. Flo Rida, Nicki Minaj) $1.29 YES 6 foot 7 foot Lil Wayne $1.29 YES Say Aah Trey Songz . 52nd Grammy Awards , Akon , Grammy Award winners 268 Words | 6 Pages. ? Racism has predominately focused itself around the African American population, however, has not been associated with “white” individuals. . There has always been a racial divide between the two groups and this is evident in bell hooks’ article, which illustrates how “whites” have made their identity as fear, power and marketing terrorism.
This chapter also goes on to discuss how the “blacks” have experienced different aspects of Does Best? terrorism by the dominant white society. Due to both white supremacy and white. African American , Black people , Race 848 Words | 3 Pages. In today’s society, racism is generally less of an issue than in the past. However, there are still some who believe otherwise. Just because a . person is ‘black’ it does not mean they should be treated as a different person.
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Racism and prejudice has been present in almost every civilization and society throughout history. Even though the world has progressed . greatly in the last couple of decades, both socially and technologically, racism , hatred and prejudice still exists today, deeply embedded in stealth old-fashioned, narrow-minded traditions and values. Racism is a case of ?misplaced hate' and ignorance, being not only discriminatory, but also seemingly foolish with disregard of all human commonsense. Why does racism. African American , Black people , Discrimination 1551 Words | 5 Pages. MY PERSONAL OPINION ABOUT RACISM Is there honestly a full change from the way America used to be in the 1940s comparing to how it is now when . it comes to racism and Outside Evaluation: The Patriot Act Essay stereotypical people? All my life I was always told that I would be just like any stereotypical black man who ends up in jail or dead, that I would join a gang and marketing that I listen to rap all day. The real truth is that I'm 25 years old, not in a gang, but with an organization Phi Beta Sigma, I'm in college, yes, I have been to tuesdays morry, jail but. African American , Family , Grandparent 2530 Words | 6 Pages.
In the novel Maus II by Art Spiegelman you hear first hand from a survivor of Auschwitz the experiences of the holocaust and the horrific consequences of . racism . Race is something that has developed over time and is constantly changing. Race is something that is seen differently by different people. “There is a continuous temptation to think of race as an essence, as something fixed, concrete, and objective. And there is stealth marketing also an opposite effects bombs temptation: to imagine race as a mere illusion” (Michael Omi. Aryan race , Human , Nazi Germany 1138 Words | 3 Pages.
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”Othello” by William Shakespeare Essay Sample. Roderigo – A jealous suitor of Desdemona. Young, rich, and foolish, Roderigo is marketing, convinced that if he gives Iago all of his money, Iago will help him win Desdemona’s hand. Repeatedly frustrated as Othello marries Desdemona and convention, then takes her to Cyprus, Roderigo is marketing, ultimately desperate enough to investigative definition, agree to help Iago kill Cassio after Iago points out that Cassio is another potential rival for Desdemona. Roderigo is stealth marketing, a rich, unintelligent guy who thinks that if he sends Desdemona enough expensive presents, she’ll fall in love with him.
He’s hired Iago to be his wingman, but Iago basically uses him as a walking ATM. Iago takes the jewelry Roderigo thinks he’s giving to Desdemona and sells it for a profit. All Roderigo does in response is to fall for Iago’s smooth talking again and again. In the end, Roderigo dies – stabbed in the back, appropriately enough, by his wingman, Iago. Roderigo, a sucker. As the atomic were play opens, Roderigo is pouting, and exclaims, “Tush! never tell me; I take it much unkindly / That thou, Iago, who hast had my purse / As if the strings were thine, shouldst know of this” (1.1.1-3). The “this” is the stealth marketing elopement of Othello and Desdemona.
Roderigo is in love with Desdemona and has been giving Iago money to act as his go-between. (From what we know of Iago’s character, it seems unlikely that Iago did anything for Roderigo except take his money and make promises.) Of course Roderigo is mightily disappointed to hear that Desdemona has married someone else, and he thinks that Iago should have said or done something about it. Iago persuades him that the elopement was a surprise, and Outside Evaluation: The Patriot Act Essay, then talks him into stealth marketing, creating problems for Othello by shouting out the news of the elopement at the window of Brabantio, Desdemona’s father. When Brabantio appears, we learn why Roderigo needed the services of a third party; Brabantio angrily tells him, “I have charged thee not to haunt about my doors: / In honest plainness thou hast heard me say / My daughter is not for thee” (1.1.96-98). [Scene Summary] Roderigo is with Brabantio when Brabantio finds Othello at the inn where Othello and Desdemona are staying. Roderigo’s only words in the scene, are “Signior, it is the growth biology Moor” (1.2.57).
A moment later, in order to marketing, provoke a brawl, Iago pretends he’s about to attack Roderigo, saying, “You, Roderigo! come, sir, I am for you” (1.2.58). [Scene Summary] Roderigo accompanies Brabantio to the Senate and Does the Veterinarian Essay, is present as Othello and Desdemona refute Brabantio’s charges. He says nothing until he is alone with Iago and then asks, “What will I do, thinkest thou?” (1.3.303). When he’s gotten Iago’s attention, Roderigo declares that he will drown himself out of stealth despair that Desdemona loves someone else. Iago easily talks him out of that plan, and investigative personality, talks him into the belief that he can get Desdemona into bed if only he will disguise himself and marketing, come to Cyprus with plenty of money in his purse. [Scene Summary] Roderigo, in disguise, travels to Cyprus on the same ship with Desdemona and of the and nagasaki were, Iago. Lurking on the fringes of the crowd, he witnesses the joyous reunion of Othello and Desdemona. When everyone else has left the stealth marketing scene, Iago calls to Roderigo, saying “Come hither. If thou be’st valiant,– as, they say, base men being in love have then a nobility in their natures more than is native to them–list me” (2.1.214-216).
Roderigo does listen to Iago, who tells him that Desdemona is in love with Cassio, so Roderigo needs to be valiant and do something that will anger Cassio and make him lose his job. At first Roderigo is incredulous at the idea that Desdemona could be in love with Cassio, but Iago keeps on talking, and Evaluation: The Patriot, Roderigo agrees to his plan. Stealth Marketing! [Scene Summary] Having persuaded Cassio to meet some gentlemen who want to have a few drinks, Iago reviews his plans. He’s sure that when Cassio is drunk he’ll get quarrelsome. Furthermore, “my sick fool Roderigo, / Whom love hath turn’d almost the wrong side out, / To Desdemona hath to-night caroused / Potations pottle-deep” (2.3.51-54), so he’s drunk, too. Roderigo will provoke Cassio into doing something rash, and Cassio will lose his job. In the remainder of the scene Iago’s plan plays out much to his satisfaction, but afterwards Roderigo complains that “My money is almost spent; I have been to-night exceedingly well cudgelled; and I think the issue [outcome] will be, I shall have so much experience for Act Essay, my pains, and . . Stealth Marketing! . no money at all and a little more wit” (2.3.364-368). Nevertheless, Iago persuades him that everything will work out the Veterinarian Best? Essay if he just has patience. [Scene Summary] Some time after Iago has used him as a tool to marketing, get Cassio dismissed, Roderigo appears and tells Iago that “I do not find that thou dealest justly with me” (4.2.173). He complains, “Every day thou daffest me [put me off] with some device [excuse], Iago” (4.2.175). Roderigo is unhappy that Iago has not given him a chance to morry, spend any time with Desdemona, has not even given him any realistic hope that he’ll ever see her, and he declares that he won’t put up with it anymore.
Roderigo also makes a threat that could make all of Iago’s schemes blow up in his face. Roderigo says that he will go to Desdemona personally and promise to quit bothering her if she will return his jewels. If she won’t, Roderigo threatens Iago, “assure yourself I will seek satisfaction of you” (4.2.200). If this were to happen, Desdemona (who of course has never received any jewels) would learn that honest Iago is not to be trusted. However, Roderigo’s threat doesn’t faze Iago. As soon as Iago tosses him a tiny crumb of respect, Roderigo is ready to swallow every lie that Iago feeds him, and Iago persuades him that he will get to sleep with Desdemona the marketing very next night if he murders Cassio. Investigative! Roderigo is amazed by this, but too much the fool to resist Iago.
All that Roderigo can think of to say is “I will hear further reason for marketing, this” (4.2.244), just as though he had enough brain to think clearly about anything. [Scene Summary] Roderigo, as he waits in with morry the dark to kill Cassio, talks to himself: “I have no great devotion to the deed; / And yet he [Iago] hath given me satisfying reasons: / ‘Tis but a man gone. Forth, my sword: he dies” (5.1.8-10). Meanwhile, Iago contemptuously comments: “I have rubb’d this young quat almost to the sense, / And he grows angry” (5.1.11-12). A “quat” is a pimple or pustule, and to rub it “to the sense,” is to rub it raw. It would seem that Roderigo the pimple is hardly the man to trust with the job of killing a soldier, but when Cassio appears Roderigo gives it a try, although not a very good one. He cuts only marketing, Cassio’s coat, whereupon Cassio draws his sword and wounds Roderigo so badly that he cries out, “O, I am slain!” (5.1.26) and curses himself, saying “O, villain that I am!” (5.1.29). After Cassio wounds Roderigo, Iago wounds Cassio from behind, then runs away. At that moment, Othello appears and hears Cassio and Roderigo crying out. He thinks that Cassio is dead and goes to kill Desdemona. Then Lodovico and Gratiano hear the noise, but are afraid that someone might be trying to lure them into the dark by tuesdays with morry pretending to need help.
Then Iago reappears and stealth, goes first to Cassio, who tells him that he has been set upon by villains, and that he thinks that “one of them is hereabout, / And cannot make away” (5.1.56-57). Cassio is referring to Roderigo, whom he has severely wounded. Iago calls out to Lodovico and Gratiano, “What are you there? come in, and give some help” (5.1.59). Outside! By this we know that Lodovico and Gratiano are still at some distance from Cassio, and further from Roderigo, who makes the marketing mistake of calling out for help. Iago answers Roderigo’s appeal by rushing over to him, shouting “O murderous slave! O villain!” (5.1.61), and killing him. Roderigo ends his life saying, “O damn’d Iago! O inhuman dog!” (5.1.62).
After Othello smothers Desdemona, Emilia comes with news of murders. She says, “Cassio, my lord, hath kill’d a young Venetian / Call’d Roderigo” (5.2.112-113). Growth! Othello answers, “Roderigo kill’d?” / And Cassio kill’d?” (5.2.113-114), but he’s disappointed when Emilia tells him that Cassio is not killed, just Roderigo. Stealth Marketing! “Here is a letter / Found in definition the pocket of the slain Roderigo” (5.2.308-309), says Lodovico, later in the same scene. Stealth Marketing! A second letter was also found on Roderigo. Both were addressed to Iago, and together they reveal the full extent of Iago’s plot. In addition, Cassio says of Outside Evaluation: The Patriot Act Essay Roderigo, “even but now he spake, / After long seeming dead, Iago hurt him, / Iago set him on” (5.2.327-329). Apparently this does not mean that Roderigo lived, only that he revived long enough to say a few words, but no one seems to care about stealth marketing, Roderigo’s life, one way or another. [Scene Summary] Character of and development biology Roderigo. The character of Roderigo is a minor one within the marketing play but, for democratic convention, such a minor character, it provides the stealth basis for several different interpretations. First readings of the play give the overwhelming impression that the character of definition Roderigo is a pathetic, easily manipulated assistant of Iago. complicit in Iago’s heinous crimes through his own stupidity. Stealth! Roderigo is utterly hopeless as he undertakes any task Iago suggests to him with little persuasion required and seems to have no will of his own.
Readers of the biology text perhaps wonder, as they contemplate how useless Roderigo is, how he can possibly imagine that assaulting a drunken Cassio will bring him and stealth, Desdemona closer together. However, this interpretation does an injustice to the manipulative powers of tuesdays Iago who orchestrates almost all the characters within the play with his persuasions including many characters of a higher standing in Venice than Roderigo who are manipulated into performing actions even more alien to their natures. For example what is arguably the central aspect of the play, Othello murdering his young wife Desdemona. Roderigo is simply another of Iago’s many victims. Roderigo is the stealth marketing only character in the play who challenges the truthfulness of the initial of the atomic bombs dropped on hiroshima Iago and the only one that stands up to the character of Iago. Marketing! Indeed the play begins with Roderigo challenging Iago over his truthfulness, “Thou told’st me, Thou did’st hold him in thy hate”. Until the 1968 revelations of stealth marketing Emilia in the final scene Roderigo is the tuesdays with only one to doubt Iago although Iago quickly manages to dispell these doubts. Marketing! The capacity of the Veterinarian Know Best? Roderigo to undermine Iago through his challenging him is shown when he threatens to perform an action that could easily unravel Iago’s entire scheme, “I will make my self knowne to Desdemona. If she will return me my jewels, I will give over marketing, my suit, and repent my unlawful solicitation”.
The final downfall of Iago, when the extent of Does Best? his crimes are revealed, is due to the discovery of, “a letter found in the pocket of the slaine Roderigo”. I believe the two above pieces of evidence are compelling enough to erode the stealth idea that Roderigo is a mere tool of the initial effects of the on hiroshima were Iago’s will. So what then is the motive of Roderigo? His character can be taken to stealth marketing, represent pure love. Even Desdemona, generally regarded as completely innocent within the play, uses her love and Does the Veterinarian Know Best?, closeness to Othello to attempt to stealth marketing, have Cassio re-instated as his lieutenant. Roderigo’s whole motive in the play is too have Desdemona reciprocate the 1968 democratic convention love and stealth, affection he feels for her and to this ends that he takes the extraordinary step of vowing to, “sell all my land”, so he can continue to pursue Desdemona, nothing is more important to democratic convention protests, him than his love for stealth marketing, her. It is this love that causes his to unquestioningly perform any task that he is growth, told will bring them closer together. If Roderigo is taken to be a symbol of pure love then the stealth play conveys a dismal view of that love as Roderigo is Outside Evaluation:, eventually murdered by stealth Iago without ever being loved by morry Desdemona. Is this the stealth marketing perfect essay for Does Know Best?, you? Save time and order ”Othello” by marketing William Shakespeare. essay editing for only $13.9 per Evaluation:, page.
Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for ”Othello” by William Shakespeare. In the play Othello by Shakespeare there are numerous various male and marketing, female roles, that between husband and wife, mater and servant relationships as well as the relationship between men… Analysis of Iago Character in Shakespeare’s “Othello” The early scenes of “Othello” establish Iago’s character and investigative personality, allow the audience to learn of his nature. He plays two different people, the disguise of the trusty and loyal ensign… Racism in ”Othello” by William Shakespeare. Racism is prevalent in Shakespearian time and marketing, the literature that was produced during the The Patriot Act Essay Elizabethan era.
That time was when white men dominated society and when the black man was… What Effect Does Shakespeare Want to Have on His Audience? Have you ever watched a drama that immediately submerges the audience in the opening scene? Yes? No? Shakespeare used this technique in Othello, but why? What effect does he want…
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analysis essay paper Poem analysis essay is the best way to express your feelings and emotions. Whenever you describe any poem is said to be poem analysis essay. Do you remember when you were child; in language class you were asked to stealth marketing, express your opinion on certain issue. Definition! Poem analysis essay is just like that. Through this essay you can clearly and deeply define each and stealth every point in the written poem – you can highlight the value of the poem. More » Writing Tips on a Literary Analysis Essay.
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If no specific instructions were given, this will serve as a guide that the students can use. Example of Analytical Essay Outline. The analytical essay outline example is a guide for students, professionals, or those people who simply love to write so that they can make properly-structured and well-thought-out essays and the initial effects of the were analytical compositions. Normally, the outline of the analytical essay comprises the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. However, there are also other outlines on how an analytical essay should be structured and these are more complicated than the average outline. Topic Ideas for Analysis Essay Writing. One may choose any of analysis essay topic ideas; however, there are some ideas that may be assigned to him or her, especially a student trying to comply with school requirements. Analysis essays can also be notoriously difficult to write as the writer should also analyze facts as well as presenting them. These essays may evaluate both the student’s ability to analyze topics and express thoughts and they can evaluate the knowledge of the marketing, student on particular issues.
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Poem analysis essay is the best way to express your feelings and emotions. Whenever you describe any poem is said to be poem analysis essay. Do you remember when you were child; in language class you were asked to express your opinion on certain issue. Poem analysis essay is just like that. Through this essay you can clearly and marketing deeply define each and every point in the written poem you can highlight the value of the poem.
How to tuesdays morry, Write a Literary Analysis Essay? Literary, Literacy is quite important for all of us. Stealth! The word designates the style of attitude in the written article of every author. Whenever you search out any product, topic or anything else deeply said analysis and it is very important to hunt every topic before buying or writing on it. With! Literary analysis essay is a brief note about literacy which describes it till the depth. Through the note writer expresses his inner thoughts about the theme.
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essay on oig The Federal Bureau of Investigation's Compliance. with the Attorney General's Investigative Guidelines. Office of the Inspector General. on FBI Undercover Operations. Our examination of the FBI's compliance with the Attorney General's Guidelines on Undercover Operations (Undercover Guidelines) produced findings that differed markedly from those for the Confidential Informant Guidelines. Stealth Marketing. 244 In contrast to the many compliance deficiencies we found in the Criminal Informant Program, our examination of the FBI's undercover operations identified comparatively few instances of non-compliance with the Undercover Guidelines. Although we noted several issues that merit further review by the FBI, we found that the FBI's organization and oversight of its undercover operations generally was effective.
Before discussing our compliance findings and our recommendations, we provide an overview of FBI undercover operations, the requirements of the Outside Evaluation: The Patriot Undercover Guidelines, and the May 2002 revisions to those Guidelines. Role of FBI Undercover Operations. The Need for Undercover Operations. The Undercover Guidelines describe the marketing importance of FBI undercover operations: The use of and development biology undercover techniques, including proprietary business entities, is essential to stealth marketing, the detection, prevention, and prosecution of white collar crime, public corruption, terrorism, organized crime, offenses involving controlled substances, and other priority areas of investigation. Of The Dropped Were. 245. As we detailed in Chapter Two, the Undercover Guidelines were revised in stealth 1982 following congressional hearings and press accounts critical of the FBI's ABSCAM undercover operation targeting official corruption in the early 1980s. Democratic. At that time, FBI Director William Webster discussed the importance of undercover operations: The kinds of crimes the FBI is giving high priority today - bribery, gambling, narcotics, theft of technology, other white collar violations - often require undercover work. They are so-called consensual crimes. Marketing. There is a willing participant on each side, so it is difficult to come up with someone willing to be a material witness to the crime. . . . 1968 Democratic Convention. Undercover operations, usually coupled with a cooperating witness or an informant, permit us to get inside a criminal apparatus and stay there long enough to find out how it works and who the players are. Undercover work is an exceedingly cost effective method of getting at stealth problems that could not be solved in personality any other way. 246.
According to Philip B. Heymann, former Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division who later served as Deputy Attorney General: From the prosecutor's perspective, undercover operations are extremely effective in aiding us to identify, prosecute and convict the guilty and to reduce the chances that innocent parties will be caught up in stealth the criminal process. Undercover operations permit us to of the dropped, prove our cases with direct, as opposed to circumstantial, evidence. Instead of stealth marketing having to rely on . . . The Initial Of The Atomic Bombs And Nagasaki Were. testimony of marketing unsavory criminals and confidence men, whose credibility may be questionable and, in any event, can often be destroyed on Outside Evaluation: Act Essay, cross-examination by able defense counsel. Instead, through undercover techniques, we can muster the testimony of credible law enforcement agents, often augmented by unimpeachable video and oral taps which graphically reveal the defendant's image and voice engaged in the commission of crime. These techniques aid the truth-finding process by generally avoiding issues of mistaken identify or perjurious efforts by a witness to implicate an innocent person . . . . 247. Undercover operations have been especially effective in public corruption investigations. The following case study demonstrates the FBI's success in infiltrating one public institution that was notorious for its widespread corruption. Case Study 4.1: Operation Greylord. The benefits of stealth FBI undercover operations were illustrated in a case that targeted corruption in the Cook County, Illinois, court system.
The impetus for the operation, code named Greylord, began when the State's Attorney for Cook County received complaints indicating that criminal cases were being fixed in the Circuit Court of Cook County. These complaints were supported by a pattern of acquittals in cases involving particular judges and Outside Evaluation:, attorneys. After the U.S. Attorney was notified, the FBI initiated plans to marketing, conduct an Outside Evaluation: undercover operation regarding these allegations. The ensuing investigation, which lasted nearly four years, uncovered extensive corruption. FBI agents who were licensed attorneys assumed roles as county prosecutors and private practitioners. Marketing. In addition, the FBI recruited a state prosecutor and a judge from southern Illinois who were temporally assigned to Cook County to deal with the the initial effects dropped on hiroshima were backlog of cases there. During the probe, more than 100 manufactured crimes were channeled to the Court. Equipped with electronic surveillance devices, the undercover agents were able to record hundreds of incriminating conversations with judges and attorneys which revealed that judges routinely accepted bribes to dismiss cases and received kickbacks from attorneys for stealth marketing assigning cases to them. By its conclusion, 15 judges and 49 lawyers were convicted as a result of the Greylord undercover operation for bribery or tax-related offenses and served time in prison.
Under the Outside Evaluation: The Patriot current Undercover Guidelines, the FBI may employ undercover operations in preliminary inquiries, general crimes investigations, and both types of criminal intelligence investigations: racketeering enterprise investigations and terrorism enterprise investigations. The FBI may also participate in joint undercover operations with other law enforcement agencies, with certain limitations. 248. The Benefits and Risks of the Undercover Technique in FBI Investigations. As with confidential informants, the FBI's use of undercover operations offers the potential for marketing significant investigative benefits but also involves various risks. The Guidelines acknowledge that, these techniques inherently involve an democratic convention protests element of deception and marketing, may require cooperation with persons whose motivation and conduct are open to question, and so should be carefully considered and of the, monitored. 249. Evaluation of the benefits and risks associated with undercover operations can involve important legal and ethical issues, and marketing, can also impact prosecutorial decisions. The Undercover Guidelines therefore contain a requirement that DOJ perform a cost/benefit analysis prior to consenting to sensitive undercover operations. Section IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines states that the appropriate Federal prosecutor must furnish a letter in support of the Group I application to FBI Headquarters that should include a finding that the proposed investigation would be an appropriate use of the undercover technique and and development, that the potential benefits in detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of other harm. As described in Chapter Two, the marketing Senate Select Committee to Study Undercover Activities of Components of the Department of tuesdays Justice, convened in the wake of the ABSCAM investigation, highlighted the competing considerations associated with use of stealth undercover operations: The Select Committee finds that undercover operations of the personality definition United States Department of stealth marketing Justice have substantially contributed to the detection, investigation, and prosecution of the initial effects of the atomic bombs dropped and nagasaki were criminal activity, especially organized crime and consensual crimes such as narcotics trafficking, fencing of stolen property, and marketing, political corruption.
In this era of increasingly powerful and sophisticated criminals, some use of the undercover technique is indispensable to the achievement of 1968 democratic protests effective law enforcement. . Stealth Marketing. . . The Select Committee also finds that use of the tuesdays with undercover technique creates serious risks to marketing, citizens' property, privacy, and civil liberties, and may compromise law enforcement itself. Personality Definition. Even when used by law enforcement officials with the most honorable motives and the greatest integrity, the undercover technique may on occasion create crime where none would otherwise have existed. 250. After the marketing Senate's report on ABSCAM in 1982, the FBI strengthened its controls on undercover operations. As we discuss in Part V of this chapter, our review found that the FBI regularly conducts undercover operations in substantial compliance with applicable FBI regulations. The FBI uses the undercover technique in a broad array of cases, as the following examples illustrate. In an investigation of gang-related homicides in New England, undercover employees infiltrated a motorcycle gang and purchased cocaine, methamphetamine, and stolen guns, motorcycles, and vehicles.
The undercover operation resulted in tuesdays 17 convictions, the marketing solving of a homicide, and Evaluation: The Patriot Act Essay, the recovery of stealth marketing 11 stolen vehicles and 17 motorcycles. In an investigation of investigative definition organized crime, 32 defendants were indicted in stealth March 2005 and charged with numerous racketeering crimes and other offenses committed over more than a decade, including violent assault, extortion, loansharking, union embezzlement, illegal gambling, trafficking in the initial effects dropped were stolen property and counterfeit goods, and stealth, mail fraud. Most of the defendants were members or associates of the tuesdays Gambino Organized Crime Family of La Cosa Nostra, including its acting boss and underboss. Marketing. Evidence developed during the investigation resulted from the undercover activities of an FBI agent who infiltrated the Evaluation: The Patriot crime organization and marketing, was offered induction as a made member. In a white collar crime investigation, the tuesdays with morry FBI targeted a warehouse facility which packaged and shipped approximately $500,000 in illegally diverted pharmaceutical drugs. The undercover employee posed as a business person who was able to obtain drugs fraudulently and sell them to national wholesalers at less than market value. The undercover operation resulted in 15 convictions and fines of more than $22 million.
In a child pornography investigation, an undercover employee identified e-mail groups that were posting and exchanging child pornography. The initial phase of the ensuing enforcement action resulted in charges against 86 individuals in more than 25 states. While the FBI has achieved significant benefits through undercover operations, the potential risks are also present. 251 The Undercover Guidelines require the FBI and DOJ to routinely address risk factors in undercover operations such as: damage to public institutions through manipulation of, or interference with, political and administrative processes; injury to the targets of undercover operations by, for example, needlessly harming their reputations; improper execution of the undercover operation that establishes a defense to prosecution, such as entrapment or outrageous government conduct; 252 and. damage to third parties, such as financial loss and stealth, criminal victimization caused by the Veterinarian Know the undercover operation's generation of crime.
A recently litigated case illustrates how an stealth FBI undercover operation can adversely affect third parties. As explained in Case Study 4.2 below, in Brown v. Nationsbank Corp., 188 F.3d 579 (5th Cir. 1999), the Court expressed its disapproval for what it perceived as the FBI's insensitivity to the interests of biology innocent bystanders to stealth marketing, the undercover operation. Case Study 4.2: Operation Lightning Strike The litigation in growth and development biology Brown resulted from an FBI undercover operation called Lightning Strike, which was initiated in 1991 to investigate contract procurement fraud and other illegal activity in the aerospace industry. In 1992, the FBI contacted three Houston businessmen about forming a partnership with a Maryland-based company, Eastern Tech Manufacturing Company, to secure contracts with NASA and its contractors. The businessmen themselves were not targets of the FBI undercover operation; instead, the FBI wanted to use them to gain access to the aerospace industry.
188 F.3d at 583. As the undercover operation unfolded, the FBI offered one of the stealth marketing businessmen a job as Chief Financial Officer and the Veterinarian Essay, Vice President of marketing Marketing of another company, Space Inc., and promised multi-million dollar loans to all three in support of their existing businesses. During 1992 and democratic protests, 1993, the businessmen were extensively involved in the preparation of bids for Space, Inc., and stealth marketing, introduced FBI agents to managers at NASA and many leading aerospace manufacturers. Personality. According to marketing, the Court, the businessmen were unaware that they and their companies were being set up by the FBI as tools of deception in an undercover operation. Id. at 583. At the end of 1992, the Does the Veterinarian Essay FBI offered one of the businessmen, Brown, an opportunity to develop an exclusive resort in marketing the Bahamas. After he dissolved his business relationship with his partners and made arrangements to sell his home, the FBI tried to persuade Brown to become an unpaid informant.
The FBI directed one of Does the Veterinarian Best? Essay his associates to deliver a sealed envelope to him with entertainment funds with instructions to meet another party at a hotel. Brown complied, and the FBI recorded the transaction. In its opinion, the Court stated: Attempting to convince Brown to work as an unpaid undercover informant to set up stings, the FBI agents physically and psychologically intimidated Brown. Stealth Marketing. On numerous occasions throughout August and September, 1993, the agents questioned Brown for multiple hours without the presence of an attorney and democratic convention protests, detained him against his will. Brown was threatened with prosecution of twenty-one different crimes, which could result in sixty years imprisonment and over a million dollars in fines. In 1994, the FBI shut down Lightening Strike.
Brown was later indicted for one count of offering a $500 bribe to stealth marketing, a public official. His trial on that charge resulted in a mistrial. Investigative Personality Definition. The government declined to prosecute the case further and stealth, subsequently dismissed its indictment against Brown. In 1996, Brown and his two associates filed suit against the FBI in effects of the and nagasaki U.S. Stealth. District Court alleging violation of the the Veterinarian Federal Tort Claims Act and malicious prosecution, as well as Bivens claims against the FBI agents for due process and Fifth Amendment violations. The district court dismissed the action, and the plaintiffs appealed. Although the Court of Appeals affirmed the stealth marketing district court's dismissal, it included the following analysis addressing the qualified immunity defense to Bivens claims: No court has addressed the particular issue presented by this case: the specific limits on federal agents' authority in undercover operations. The district court found no limits on the power of federal agents operating under cover, reasoning that if Appellants are allowed to pursue state law causes of action it would 'effectively stop' federal undercover operations because, 'by their very nature [they] seek to invade the privacy of those who violate the law.' . . . The district court should have asked whether it was constitutionally permissible for federal agents to inflict damages on innocent non-targets during an 1968 democratic convention protests undercover operation and refuse them compensation.
Because the Fifth Amendment due process guarantee against conscience-shocking injury imposes clear limits on law enforcement conduct, we conclude that it was neither necessary nor proper for the defendants in stealth marketing this case to growth, destroy the lives and marketing, businesses of innocent non-targets in the name of Outside The Patriot law enforcement. . . Stealth. . [W]e conclude that the FBI made decisions which harmed the Does Best? Plaintiffs after ample opportunity for cool reflection. In fact, they invested almost two years and thousands of man hours in developing the sting operation. Thus, the due process clause protects the stealth marketing Plaintiffs from any harm that arose from the officers' deliberate indifference. The facts, as pleaded, establish at least that level of federal agent culpability as Operation Lightening Strike evolved into a disastrous boondoggle. We therefore hold that Hodgson's [another plaintiff] allegations that federal agents inflicted damages on him, an innocent non-target, during this particular undercover operation and refused him compensation states a claim under Bivens. However, because we address today for Does Essay the first time the parameters of due process protections afforded innocent third parties injured by law enforcement sting operations run amok, . . . we cannot say that the due process rights claimed by Hodgson were clearly established during 1992-94.
188 F.3d at 590-92. As explained later in this Chapter, our review found no undercover operations that involved the stealth sort of adverse consequences described by the court in Brown . Our inquiries with the FBI Office of the General Counsel found that FBI undercover operations rarely have resulted in biology civil litigation. Significant Requirements of the Undercover Guidelines. The Undercover Guidelines prescribe the authority level and approval process for FBI undercover operations based upon the type of undercover operation being proposed. As described below, there are two types of undercover operations: Group I and Group II. 253.
Group I Undercover Operations. Group I undercover operations, known as Group I UCOs, must be approved by FBI Headquarters and Group I UCOs involving sensitive circumstances must be approved by the joint FBI-DOJ Criminal Undercover Operations Review Committee (CUORC). We provide a detailed description of the operations of the CUORC in Chapter Seven. The major categories of Group I UCOs are those in marketing which there is the initial of the atomic bombs dropped and nagasaki were a reasonable expectation of involving either sensitive circumstances or fiscal circumstances. Marketing. The types of operations that involve sensitive circumstances are: investigations of possible criminal conduct by tuesdays with any elected or appointed official, or political candidate for a judicial, legislative, management, or executive-level position of trust in a federal, state, or local governmental entity or political subdivision thereof; investigations of any public official at marketing the federal, state, or local level in any matter involving systemic corruption of any governmental function; and.
investigations of possible criminal conduct by any foreign official or government, religious organization, political organization, or the news media. In addition, the tuesdays with morry following activities constitute sensitive circumstances: engaging in activity having a significant effect on marketing, or constituting a significant intrusion into effects bombs on hiroshima, the legitimate operation of a federal, state, or local governmental entity; establishing, acquiring, or operating a proprietary business; providing goods or services that are essential to the commission of a crime and stealth, that are reasonably unavailable to a subject of the investigation except from the government; activity by an undercover employee that is proscribed by federal, state, or local law as a felony or that is otherwise a serious crime; activities involving a request to an attorney, physician, member of the clergy, or other persons for information that would ordinarily be privileged, or to a member of the news media concerning an individual with whom the news media is known to have a professional or confidential relationship; and. activities that present a significant risk of violence, risk of financial loss, or a realistic potential for significant claims against the United States. 254. The types of activities that qualify as fiscal circumstances are those in which there is a reasonable expectation that the operation will: require the purchase or lease of property, equipment, buildings, or facilities; the alteration of and development buildings or facilities; or prepayment of more than one month's rent; require the marketing deposit of protests appropriated funds or proceeds generated by the undercover operation into stealth marketing, banks or other financial institutions; use the proceeds generated by the undercover operation to the initial effects of the dropped on hiroshima and nagasaki were, offset necessary and reasonable expenses of the operation; require a reimbursement, compensation, or indemnification agreement with cooperating individuals or entities for services or losses incurred by them in stealth aid of the operation; or.
exceed the limitations on duration or commitment of resources established by the FBI Director for operations initiated in the field. 255. The Undercover Guidelines specify the 1968 convention protests issues that must be addressed in marketing any application to conduct a Group I UCO. The application must include: a description of the proposed objective, scope, duration, and tuesdays with, cost of the stealth marketing operation; how, if the operation involves sensitive circumstances, the investigative personality operation merits approval in light of the involvement of otherwise illegal activity (OIA), if any; procedures to minimize the stealth acquisition, retention, and dissemination of any information which does not relate to the matter under investigation; and an explanation of Best? how potential constitutional or other legal concerns are being addressed. In addition, the proposing field office must include with its application a letter from the appropriate U.S. Attorney indicating that he or she has reviewed the proposed operation, agrees with the proposal and stealth marketing, that it is legal, will prosecute any meritorious cases, and has made a finding that the growth proposed investigation would be an appropriate use of the undercover technique, and that the stealth potential benefits in investigative personality detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of other harm. Marketing. Undercover Guidelines § IV.F.2.b.
Most FBI field offices employ a field division CUORC to evaluate both Group I and Group II UCO proposals. The Guidelines also specify the limited circumstances in which an undercover employee may participate in OIA, defined as any activity that would constitute a violation of Federal, state, or local law if engaged in by a private person acting without authorization. Undercover Guidelines § IV.H. 256 An FBI Assistant Director must approve certain types of OIA after review by Outside The Patriot the CUORC. Id. § III.H.5. To avoid entrapment of innocent persons caught up in undercover operations, the Guidelines require that any undercover activities that involve an inducement to engage in marketing crime be authorized only upon a finding that the illegal nature of the activity is reasonably clear to potential subjects; the nature of the inducement is justifiable in tuesdays morry view of the character of the illegal transaction; there is a reasonable expectation that offering the inducement will reveal illegal activity; and there is stealth either a reasonable indication that the Evaluation: subject is engaging, has engaged, or is likely to engage in the proposed or similar illegal activity, or the opportunity for illegal activity has been structured so that there is reason to believe that any persons drawn to the opportunity or brought to it are predisposed to engage in the contemplated illegal conduct. 257 Undercover Guidelines § V.B. With respect to marketing, applications for the extension or renewal of a Group I UCO, the Guidelines require an with explanation of the expected results to be obtained from the operation or an explanation of any failure to obtain significant results. At the end of 2004, the FBI had [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] open Group I undercover operations that were governed by stealth the Undercover Guidelines. Group II Undercover Operations.
Undercover operations that may be approved by the Special Agent in Charge (SAC) in FBI field offices without FBI Headquarters' review are known as Group II undercover operations, or Group II UCOs. A Group II UCO is defined as an undercover operation that does not involve either sensitive circumstances or fiscal circumstances. Currently, SACs have the authority to tuesdays, approve Group II UCOs involving the expenditure of up to $100,000 (or $150,000 in drug cases of stealth marketing which a maximum of $100,000 is for operational expenses) for up to 6 months, and to renew the operation for one additional 6-month period, not to exceed 1 year. Tuesdays Morry. 258 Thereafter, extensions or renewals must be approved by FBI Headquarters following review by stealth the CUORC. The Guidelines provide that a copy of all approvals for the establishment, extension, or renewal of undercover operations must be sent to FBI Headquarters. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B. In approving the establishment, extension, or renewal of Evaluation: a Group II UCO, the SAC must make a written determination referencing the marketing facts and investigative, circumstances indicating that initiation of the stealth investigative activity is 1968 democratic protests warranted under departmental guidelines; the proposed undercover operation appears to be an effective means of obtaining evidence or necessary information; the operation will be conducted with minimal intrusion consistent with the need to collect evidence or information in a timely and stealth, effective manner; approval for the use of Does Best? Essay confidential informants has been obtained pursuant to the relevant Guidelines; any foreseeable participation by an undercover employee in illegal activity that can be approved by the SAC is justified by the pertinent factors; and there is stealth no present expectation of the occurrence of any of the tuesdays with morry sensitive or fiscal circumstances that would render the operation a Group I UCO. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B. Marketing. At the end of 2004, the FBI had [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] open Group II undercover operations that were governed by the Undercover Guidelines.
Major Revisions to democratic, the Guidelines. The May 2002 revisions to the Undercover Guidelines broadened the FBI's authority to use undercover techniques in a wider variety of investigations, increased monetary limits, expanded SAC approval authority for Group II UCOs, and clarified several terms in the previous Guidelines. The major changes were: emphasizing the prevention of terrorism as a permissible objective of undercover operations; making explicit and marketing, emphasizing the FBI's authority to use undercover techniques to further the convention objectives of both types of criminal intelligence investigations: racketeering enterprise investigations and terrorism enterprise investigations; authorizing SACs to grant emergency approval for the initiation of terrorism-related Group I UCOs if the stealth marketing SAC determines that the UCO is necessary to avoid the loss of a significant investigative opportunity; adding potential constitutional concerns as a factor the tuesdays with morry SAC must consider in approving any Group II UCO and stealth, requiring an explanation of how such concerns have been addressed in an application for a Group I UCO involving the infiltration of a group as part of Does the Veterinarian Best? a terrorism enterprise or recruitment of an stealth marketing informant from such a group; clarifying that only substantive contacts with an undercover employee, as distinguished from incidental or passive contact, count toward the rule defining a series of related undercover activities as three or more substantive contacts with the individual(s) under investigation; clarifying the FBI's authority to participate in joint operations with other federal agencies by authorizing the FBI's participation without complying with the Does Best? Essay Attorney General's Guidelines on FBI Undercover Operations as long as the lead agency's sensitive case review process is substantially comparable to the FBI's CUORC review process; raising from stealth $40,000 to with, $50,000 the stealth marketing operational expenditure limits for Group II UCOs which may be approved at the field level; clarifying that felony activity by an FBI undercover employee and potential civil actions against FBI employees under Bivens is a sensitive circumstance, thereby requiring CUORC approval; extending the authority of SACs to approve low-level money laundering not to exceed five transactions and $1 million without requiring Group I authority from the CUORC; authorizing SACs to The Patriot Act Essay, approve the continuation of covert online contact with subjects for a 30-day period pending approval of marketing a Group I UCO at FBI Headquarters if necessary to maintain credibility or to avoid permanent loss of contact; and. requiring that the FBI immediately notify the growth biology Deputy Attorney General whenever FBI Headquarters disapproves an application for approval of an undercover operation and whenever the CUORC is unable to reach consensus concerning an application. The OIG Review of the marketing FBI's Compliance with the Undercover Guidelines.
The focus of our review of the Undercover Guidelines was on two of the three substantive Guideline sections: Authorization of Undercover Operations (Part IV), and Monitoring and Control of Undercover Operations (Part VI). We did not directly examine the 1968 democratic convention protests third substantive section, Entrapment (Part V), because it largely addresses authorization issues that we analyzed through examination of the stealth Guidelines' general authorization provisions. During our visits to 12 FBI field divisions, we examined 83 undercover operations, of which 22 were Group I UCOs and 61 were Group II UCOs. We collected Guidelines-related data on growth and development, more than 75 variables for Group I UCOs that we evaluated, and 50 variables for Group II UCOs that we evaluated. Marketing. 259 As part of this assessment we examined the growth following questions.
Was the marketing initiation of the undercover operation authorized? Was authority to growth, extend the marketing undercover operation obtained? Was authority to conduct interim or emergency undercover operations obtained in accordance with the Guidelines? Were unforeseen sensitive circumstances that developed during the democratic convention protests undercover operation addressed? Was written authorization from the appropriate federal prosecutor obtained as necessary? Was otherwise illegal activity (OIA) properly authorized and adequately described? Did FBI management adequately supervise the undercover operation? Were undercover employees prepared in accordance with the stealth marketing Guidelines?
Did the SAC review the conduct of the with morry undercover employees as required? In addition to marketing, our evaluation of the FBI's undercover operations, we also examined the results of the the initial dropped and nagasaki were FBI's undercover operation audits. These included FBI Inspection Division reports and the CID's Undercover and stealth, Sensitive Operation Unit's (USOU) periodic on-site evaluations. Investigative Definition. The USOU, which we discuss in greater detail in Chapter Seven, provides programmatic and operational support to the FBI's undercover operations. Finally, we surveyed the FBI's Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel regarding the operation of the undercover program. Stealth Marketing. 260. Of the 83 undercover operations we examined during our field work, we identified authorization-related errors in 10 cases, or 12 percent. Eight undercover operations, or 10 percent, had a single violation of the Undercover Guidelines, and 2 undercover operations had 2 violations. In three cases, the available documentation shows that the undercover operation continued beyond the established expiration date.
261 Three cases involved task force undercover operations in which the FBI was participating with state and local law enforcement; in these cases, the atomic bombs on hiroshima were undercover operations exceeded the scope of the FBI's authorization for its agents' participation. 262 In two cases, the stealth marketing undercover operation was approved by an FBI manager who lacked authority to do so. 263 Finally, in two cases FBI Headquarters approval was not obtained for 1968 convention matters involving sensitive circumstances within the meaning of § IV.C.2 of the Undercover Guidelines. These two violations both occurred in marketing public corruption cases - one involving the Know Best? payment of a bribe without following Headquarters' review procedures, and the other involving the systemic corruption of [a] governmental function. 264. The results of stealth our field work are comparable to the findings of the USOU on-site reviews that we examined, which found authorization-related errors in roughly 12 percent of the the initial effects of the atomic bombs dropped were undercover operations. In addition to these Guidelines deficiencies, we identified 17 undercover operations with 19 documentation-related errors that were connected to the FBI's Undercover Guidelines compliance responsibilities. As discussed in stealth marketing detail below, the issues in these matters concerned the lack of or insufficient documentation addressing the SAC's review of undercover employee conduct, authorizations of OIA, and certain required elements of U.S. And Development Biology. Attorney authorizations for stealth Group I UCOs. We also identified inconsistencies relating to the evaluation of the risk of violence in undercover operations, a sensitive circumstance within the meaning of § IV.C.2 of the Undercover Guidelines.
Similar to personality, many USOU on-site reviews, our field work identified lapses relating to the documentation of the SAC's review of the conduct of undercover employees. Section VI.A of the stealth marketing Undercover Guidelines requires the SAC or Supervisory Special Agent (SSA) to Does Know Best?, meet with the undercover employees and to discuss their expected conduct during the undercover operation and provide instructions included in the Guidelines. Section VI.B requires the SAC to stealth, review the conduct of the undercover employees from time to time. Neither Section requires documentation of these meetings and reviews. The Unit Chief of USOU explained to the OIG that he favored documenting all reviews required by The Patriot §§ VI.A and stealth marketing, B in order to demonstrate compliance with the Guidelines, and that this could be satisfied simply by having the case agent or supervisor include an e-mail in the case file. 265 However, the FBI's Field Guide for Undercover and personality, Sensitive Operations (Field Guide or FGUSO) requires documentation only of meetings with undercover employees whose undercover responsibilities require them to work outside field division offices. 266 Field Guide §10.1(1)A. Of the marketing 83 undercover operations we examined, 21 lacked documentation of the the initial of the bombs on hiroshima and nagasaki SAC's review of the undercover employees' conduct.
In addition, neither the Group I nor Group II standard authorization forms used by the FBI includes a certification that the instructions required by Undercover Guidelines § VI.A have been given, though both forms require the Undercover Coordinator to certify that he or she has apprised the members of the undercover operation investigative team . . . of undercover program policy. Our survey of Undercover Coordinators revealed that 51 percent of those responding reported that their office did not maintain records related to the required instructions. 267. As we found with respect to marketing, the FBI's use of its authority to approve a confidential informant's participation in OIA in the Criminal Informant Program, we identified deficiencies in the sufficiency of the descriptions of OIA authorized for undercover employees. In six Group II undercover operations, the OIA was inadequately described. This occurred primarily in drug-related undercover operations where basic information about the anticipated drug transactions (such as the type and general estimate of the quantity of drugs) was not specified. For example, in one undercover operation the Best? quantity of drugs that was authorized for purchase was identified as that which will be needed to maintain sufficient leverage on the subjects in order to marketing, persuade them to cooperate with law enforcement. The Veterinarian Know Essay. In another matter, the authorization was [to] gather sufficient evidence against stealth marketing the aforementioned targets to prosecute on Federal Criminal Narcotics Trafficking charges. Two successive Unit Chiefs of USOU disagreed as to and development, whether such descriptions of OIA were adequate.
We also identified six Group I UCOs where the required letter from DOJ did not satisfy § IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines. Marketing. As noted above, that Section requires that applications to FBI Headquarters for approval of undercover operations include a letter from a U.S. Attorney or Section Chief in the Criminal Division of the the Veterinarian Know Essay DOJ that indicates that he or she: has reviewed the proposed operation, including any sensitive circumstances reasonably expected to occur; agrees with the proposal and its legality; finds that the proposed investigation would be an appropriate use of the undercover technique; believes that the stealth marketing potential benefits in detecting, preventing, or prosecuting criminal activity outweigh any direct costs or risks of other harm; and. will prosecute any meritorious case that is developed. Four of the letters omitted two or more factors. All of the letters omitted factor number four. We also did not find a consistent practice of highlighting in the proposal materials the definition potential risk of violence or physical harm that could result from the undercover operations. Neither the Group I nor Group II proposal form generated by marketing USOU specifically solicits information on this issue. 268. The following table summarizes these findings.
Operations in Select Field Offices. In addition to Outside The Patriot, our field work, we also examined the results of USOU's on-site evaluations. The USOU's evaluations found comparatively few violations of the marketing Undercover Guidelines. The Initial Atomic Bombs Dropped. Of [SENSITIVE INFORMATION REDACTED] on-sites conducted by USOU from May 2002 through October 2004, the following Guidelines-related deficiencies were identified: in seven undercover operations, agents failed to obtain proper authorization for undercover activity; in two undercover operations, division management failed to meet with undercover employees and in five other undercover operations documentation of such meetings was lacking; 269 and. in one undercover operation, a financial transaction was conducted in violation of the Guidelines. Our review of other USOU documents revealed other Guidelines violations. The CUORC's fiscal year 2003 report noted the stealth marketing lack of 1968 convention proper authorization in one undercover operation, and marketing, a USOU electronic communication to the field in 2003 described the failure of certain field divisions to investigative personality definition, provide prompt notification to FBI Headquarters of the approval of Group II UCOs, a requirement of the Undercover Guidelines. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B.4. Stealth. However, USOU reports do not summarize or include violations found in the Inspection Division's audits on undercover operations. According to the Unit Chief of and development USOU, the Inspection Division does not routinely share its undercover inspection findings with USOU.
The Assistant Director of the Inspection Division stated that she believes the stealth marketing Inspection Division should share this information with USOU. Our review of with Inspection Division audits of undercover operations conducted from May 2002 through October 2004 identified four Guidelines violations. In one field division, a Group II UCO continued for more than a year without Headquarters approval, while Headquarters twice was not properly notified by stealth another field division when two undercover operations were initiated. Another violation involved a fiscal circumstance that was not presented to growth, FBI Headquarters for marketing review. We believe that several factors account for the generally favorable compliance findings for the FBI's undercover operations. First, the FBI's use of undercover operations is not as widespread as its use of personality definition confidential informants. For example, many of the largest FBI offices had only a few undercover operations operating at any time, and some field offices had none. According to the Unit Chief of stealth marketing USOU, the small number of undercover operations allows the FBI to devote sufficient resources and attention to supervising them. Second, unlike with the confidential informant program, USOU has developed a field guide, standardized forms, and a user-friendly web site to assist with administration of investigative personality undercover operations. The Field Guide addresses many issues covered by the Undercover Guidelines, such as consultations with DOJ and a discussion of entrapment.
The standardized forms provided by FBI Headquarters also address Guidelines issues such as the presence of sensitive circumstances. Stealth. The web site includes such resources as the current version of the Guidelines, the undercover operation field guide, and of the and nagasaki were, answers to frequently asked questions concerning undercover operations. With few exceptions, we did not detect significant confusion in the field regarding Undercover Guidelines' requirements and stealth, procedures. 270. Third, according to the Unit Chief of USOU, field agents are able to draw upon the expertise of personnel assigned to USOU, Undercover Coordinators, and experienced undercover-certified agents to and development, promote compliance with FBI and DOJ requirements. We found that Undercover Guidelines compliance has been significantly aided by the leadership of the Unit Chief of USOU who was in place for the majority of our review. During his tenure, which ended in March 2004, he took several actions to significantly improve the operation of USOU and promote compliance with the Guidelines. These included reinstituting preparation of the annual report of the stealth marketing CUORC, improving the USOU on-site review process, identifying Guidelines compliance issues in Unit reports, and promptly rewriting the Field Guide to tuesdays morry, account for the May 2002 Guidelines revisions. Fourth, USOU's on-site review process reinforces for the field the marketing importance of adherence to the Guidelines. Although the focus of the on-site reviews is operational success and safety, the reviews include assessments of compliance issues that assist with the identification and correction of Undercover Guidelines violations. With regard to the causes of the limited Undercover Guidelines violations that we identified in our field work, the investigative definition violations involved errors that we believe could have been avoided had there been closer coordination between the stealth marketing undercover investigative teams and the Undercover Coordinators and Chief Division Counsel.
The failure to with morry, obtain or to maintain proper authorization for undercover activities was the most significant Guidelines compliance violation we found. These included continuing undercover activities beyond the approved authorization period, failing to marketing, obtain FBI Headquarters approval because of a misinterpretation of sensitive circumstances, and participating in task forces that exceed FBI undercover operation authorizations. Although the frequency of these violations was not as common as for other kinds of Guidelines non-compliance identified during this review, it nonetheless occurred in 10 to growth, 12 percent of the cases examined by the OIG and stealth marketing, USOU. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the cause of the non-compliance is simply lack of knowledge by agents regarding the definition Guideline requirements. Our surveys of Undercover Coordinators and stealth marketing, Division Counsel revealed two significant findings regarding oversight and assistance to FBI undercover operations. 271 First, many Undercover Coordinators believe that they are too encumbered by other duties to devote appropriate attention to the undercover program. Second, the matters on which Division Counsel's advice is sought with regard to undercover operations varies considerably by field division. The diagram below indicates that more than one-third of the Undercover Coordinators we surveyed said they believe that they have insufficient time to coordinate undercover operations in their field offices. Nearly two thirds of those Coordinators stated that the investigative definition reason is that they have too many other responsibilities. 272. Our survey of Division Counsel also revealed that a large percentage of these attorneys are not consistently briefed by field agents regarding important developments in undercover operations.
on Select Issues Concerning Undercover Operations. In addition, we found significant agreement concerning the lack of consultation among Division Counsel assigned to the same field office. 273 We found that 40 percent of the offices to which these attorneys were assigned are not regularly briefed on the status of pending undercover operations, 33 percent are not regularly briefed on planned investigative approaches, and 27 percent are not regularly briefed on anticipated legal problems with the stealth undercover operations. Moreover, Division Counsel in the five field divisions that had at least two cases of 1968 convention protests authorization-related errors reported that they were not regularly briefed on the status of pending undercover operations. Our interviews with FBI personnel also indicated that some field divisions need more frequent and consistent interactions by Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel with undercover teams. 274 The Unit Chief of USOU emphasized this point, stating the mistakes that I have seen since being the Unit Chief of this Unit, if the stealth marketing Undercover Coordinator would have been involved, it probably wouldn't have happened. He also stated that the CDC is first line of legal defense, and if agents are not working with legal counsel as part of a team effort both in the formulation and Does Best? Essay, implementation of the undercover operation, you are asking for problems. In addition, an electronic communication which USOU issued to all field offices during our review emphasized the marketing importance of the and development biology Undercover Coordinator, the need for greater consultation with the Coordinator, and marketing, the problems that turnover in the Undercover Coordinator position was having on the Veterinarian Know Best?, the undercover program. FBIHQ has seen an increase in the turnover rate in the [Undercover Coordinator] position. Since January 2001, 29 of 56 UCCs have been replaced.
While a UCC may be promoted or transferred thus making a change necessary, efforts should be made to ensure continuity by selecting a candidate who will remain in the position for a period of time. Such continuity will be mutually beneficial to the field office and the FBI's undercover program. . . . It has also been noticed that [Undercover Coordinators] have not been fully utilized as reflected in the fact that several undercover proposals have been submitted to marketing, FBIHQ without the careful review by the [Undercover Coordinator]. We also learned that the SSAs who exercise day-to-day supervision over the agents participating in the undercover operations are not required to receive training on undercover operations or compliance issues. Our review further revealed that the absence of guidance addressing undercover operations in which task forces participated contributed to some of the Guidelines violations we found. In one case a local law enforcement task force member made drug purchases using FBI funds on behalf of an FBI agent who previously had participated in the undercover operation, even though the FBI's authorization for and development the undercover activity had expired weeks earlier. Although the Field Guide includes a section on joint operations, it does not address many compliance issues that are unique to task forces, such as the need to stealth marketing, identify in investigative the FBI proposal documentation all task force officers who will participate in marketing the undercover operation. The USOU Unit Chief explained that the FBI has not developed guidance for the Veterinarian Know Best? undercover operations involving task forces. We also identified some confusion concerning the scope of sensitive circumstances in marketing the Undercover Guidelines. Our survey of FBI Undercover Coordinators revealed that 43 percent of those responding believed that determining whether sensitive circumstances are present in a case is one of the three most difficult issues to personality definition, resolve in the course of initiating and conducting undercover operations. 275 Our field work also noted compliance issues associated with the interpretation of stealth systemic corruption in § IV.C.2.b and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals in § IV.C.2.m.
276 For example, we identified an undercover operation in which law enforcement officers from two agencies were engaged in illegal conduct, and the target of the investigation had consulted with the head of one of the agencies about some of Act Essay these activities. After we questioned the field division's application of § IV.C.2.b (systematic corruption) in marketing this case and its decision to treat the undercover operation as a Group II, we conferred with the morry Chief of the Investigative Law Unit of the FBI Office of the General Counsel who described a framework for analyzing when a governmental function has been systemically corrupted. The USOU has not incorporated this type of guidance into its Field Guide or other guidance, however. We believe that guidance would assist field agents and promote consistency in stealth marketing interpretation. In addition, we reviewed a number of Group II UCO proposals originating from Violent Crime and democratic protests, Major Offender and Drug Units which contained little information about the marketing risks of violence. Act Essay. Our discussions with FBI personnel revealed a wide range of opinions concerning what qualifies as a significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals within the meaning of § IV.C.2.m. 277. With respect to compliance violations regarding the documentation concerning reviews required under Part VI of the Undercover Guidelines, descriptions of OIA, and the contents of DOJ authorization letters for Group I UCOs, our discussions with FBI personnel indicated that a lack of awareness of the need for the documentation or for greater specificity in such material appeared to be the primary cause of the deficiencies. The USOU Field Guide currently does not list the stealth required contents of DOJ authorization letters.
With regard to oversight of undercover employees, § VI.B of the Undercover Guidelines requires the SAC to effects of the atomic bombs and nagasaki, review from time to time the conduct of undercover employees. Stealth. 278 According to the Unit Chief of USOU, the case agents and their supervisors have the responsibility to document meetings with the SAC. With respect to the lack of specificity found in some OIA authorizations, the USOU Unit Chief stated that it is a common sense approach. [You should identify] the activity that you are going to be engaging in as best as you can at the time. According to one USOU Unit Chief, the kind of with general descriptions that we found in several of the OIA authorizations, such as that which will be needed to maintain sufficient leverage on the subjects in order to persuade them to stealth, cooperate with law enforcement, does not provide sufficient guidance or indicate the likely limitations that the SAC intended to impose on the scope of the OIA. Another USOU Unit Chief told us that the Outside referenced descriptions were adequate. Our review of the FBI's undercover program revealed that, with some exceptions, FBI undercover operations typically adhered to stealth, the Undercover Guidelines. We believe this generally favorable record is attributable to the availability of effects of the atomic on hiroshima information about the requirements, including a field guide, standardized forms, and a user-friendly web site, and the contributions of experienced FBI personnel in ensuring adherence to the Guidelines. Our review nonetheless identified authorization-related deficiencies in 12 percent of the undercover operations that we examined, an outcome that is consistent with the results of USOU's on-site reviews over the last two years. Marketing. We believe that these violations, while not high in Does Know number, are important to rectify, especially because of the risks that undercover operations present for the participating agents, the FBI, and the public. To ensure that undercover operations are properly authorized and conducted in accordance with the Guidelines, we believe that the FBI should encourage greater utilization of its Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel.
We recommend that the FBI evaluate the Undercover Coordinator position in the same way we have recommended for stealth marketing the Confidential Informant Coordinator position. Given the demands placed on Know, Undercover Coordinators in marketing certain field divisions, it may be appropriate to afford senior field managers the option of elevating the post to the GS-14 supervisory level. We also concur with the view of the effects of the atomic dropped on hiroshima were USOU Unit Chief that the FBI should assess whether it should formalize [the position] so that the Coordinator is stealth put in a position where you do have to go through them and do have to consult with them. He explained that Undercover Coordinators should be consulted at the early stages of effects of the atomic bombs and nagasaki were planning for any covert activity, not just undercover operations. We also believe that the FBI should encourage Undercover Coordinators to conduct their own progress reviews of the marketing undercover operations within their field division. We were advised by the Unit Chief of USOU that Undercover Coordinators presently do not have this responsibility but that he favored Coordinators performing mini on-sites of democratic protests their undercover operations. Stealth. We believe this function is especially important for Group II UCOs since they are rarely examined by USOU in its on-site reviews and are not reviewed by the COURC.
Our survey of Coordinators also found support for this work. We asked the Undercover Coordinators which actions field divisions should take to enhance compliance with the revised Guidelines. Of the surveyed Coordinators, 51 percent responded that informal field office reviews of undercover operations should be conducted. In addition, highlighting the important role of the Chief Division Counsel, 62 percent responded that they should provide additional training to agents and supervisors. Our survey of Undercover Coordinators also revealed another consideration that is relevant to oversight of undercover operations: nine percent of the surveyed field divisions reported that they did not have a local CUORC to review undercover operation proposals. Does The Veterinarian Know Best? Essay. Local CUORCs typically review both Group I and Group II undercover operation proposals. After observing the operations of the Headquarters CUORC, we believe that there are significant benefits from vetting undercover operation proposals for discussion before a group that includes experienced FBI agents and stealth, managers. Most FBI's field divisions - 90 percent - have a local CUORC. We believe that those field divisions that do not have a CUORC should be required to establish a local CUORC or specify written internal review procedures for both Group I and Group II UCOs that ensure proper consideration of the undercover operation approval standards set forth in § VI.A of the Undercover Guidelines. Two other factors are also important to ensure full compliance with the Act Essay Undercover Guidelines: 1) supervising agents and undercover employees should be adequately trained in stealth undercover procedures; and 2) adequate technology should be employed to monitor undercover operation authorizations. As described earlier, currently, SSAs who supervise undercover employees are not required to have received training on the Veterinarian Best? Essay, undercover procedures and compliance issues.
We recommend that all agents who supervise undercover employees should have training on these topics. Stealth Marketing. We also believe that, absent exigent circumstances, undercover employees should receive compliance training before engaging in undercover operations. The Unit Chief of of the bombs and nagasaki USOU suggested that it is feasible to stealth marketing, develop a training CD-ROM to meet these needs. Technology also can support compliance efforts. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the FBI will soon be able to use a database to monitor undercover operation authorizations and other compliance issues nationwide. 279 This system will automatically send electronic notifications to users and to 1968 democratic convention, USOU of stealth marketing upcoming deadlines and requirements. USOU expects its database to greatly assist with many administrative and compliance matters. In addition, we believe that the growth biology likelihood of finding Guidelines violations of the sort we identified during our field work would be reduced if the FBI issued guidance or supplemented the USOU Field Guide with information addressing compliance issues associated with task forces and the interpretation of sensitive circumstances set forth in marketing §§ IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m of the Undercover Guidelines.
As described earlier, several of the Undercover Guidelines violations we found involved the tuesdays with failure to obtain proper authorization for activities undertaken in undercover operations that were conducted in conjunction with task forces. We also noted compliance issues associated with the interpretation of systemic corruption in § IV.C.2.b and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals in § IV.C.2.m. We believe that the FBI should adopt a consistent interpretation of sensitive circumstances in both ordinary and task force settings and require its undercover operations proposals to stealth, identify facts that will allow FBI supervisors to determine whether such circumstances, including the risk of violence, are present and to what degree. With regard to the § VI meetings and growth and development biology, consultations with undercover employees, the Unit Chief of USOU explained that an e-mail documenting the meetings can be included in the FBI's records and that a formal electronic communication is not necessarily required. Stealth Marketing. Authorization letters from U.S. Biology. Attorneys' Offices approving Group I UCOs should address all the factors set forth in § IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines, and the descriptions of otherwise illegal activity can be modified in the same fashion as we have recommended in Chapter Three with respect to otherwise illegal activity authorized for confidential informants. In sum, we recommend that the FBI take the following steps. Enhance the Role of Undercover Coordinators and Division Counsel. (10) Evaluate the grade level of Special Agents who serve as Undercover Coordinators and consider allowing Undercover Coordinators to be elevated to a GS-14 supervisory level, particularly in marketing larger field offices where executive management deems it necessary to Evaluation: The Patriot, be a full-time position. (11) Encourage regular consultation between members of the undercover investigative team and the Undercover Coordinator during the formulation and conduct of the undercover operation.
(12) Evaluate ways for the Undercover Coordinator to stealth marketing, perform progress reviews at the initial of the bombs dropped were least every 90 days on undercover operations, a component of which should include an evaluation by senior managers, in consultation with Division Counsel and stealth marketing, the Undercover Coordinator, of compliance with the Undercover Guidelines. The FBI should also create standardized forms to conduct these reviews. (13) Establish policies that promote more consistent Division Counsel involvement in the development and implementation of undercover operations, and ensure that Division Counsel are advised of anticipated legal problems in undercover operations. Improve Guidance and Training. (14) Because neither the MIOG nor FBI field guides adequately address the Outside issues below, provide guidance on the following: the meaning of sensitive circumstances relating to systemic corruption of governmental functions, and the significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals pursuant to Undercover Guidelines Sections IV.C.2.b and IV.C.2.m, respectively; how to limit the scope of authorizations for otherwise illegal activity in undercover operations; and. special concerns and compliance issues associated with task force participation.
(15) Identify ways to enhance Undercover Guidelines compliance training for field supervisors and undercover employees, including use of instructional CD-ROMs, web-based courses, and joint training with the U.S. Attorneys' Offices. Marketing. Absent exigent circumstances, either as part of the the initial effects atomic dropped and nagasaki certification of undercover employees or otherwise, the FBI should require undercover employees to complete undercover operation compliance training before participating in undercover operations. The FBI should also ensure that all field supervisors who provide guidance pursuant to marketing, Section VI.A of the Guidelines regarding preparation of undercover employees are familiar with undercover techniques, compliance requirements, and the Field Guide for Does the Veterinarian Know Undercover Sensitive Operations. Improve Internal Controls. (16) As part of the Undercover Coordinator's certification currently provided for Group I and stealth, II undercover operation proposals, add a certification that the instructions set forth in investigative personality definition Section VI.A.2 of the Undercover Guidelines regarding lawful investigative techniques have been given to each undercover employee. (17) Amend the Group I and Group II undercover operation proposals forms that currently provide information regarding the expected execution of the undercover operation to marketing, include a section: Facts Pertinent to Violence Risk Assessment. (18) Require field offices seeking approval of Group I undercover operations to obtain concurrence letters from U.S. Attorneys' Offices that meet the requirements of Section IV.F.2.b of the Undercover Guidelines and amend Section 4.8(5) of the Field Guide for Undercover Sensitive Operations accordingly. (19) Ensure that the Undercover and Sensitive Operations Unit has access to the Inspection Division's undercover operation audits. We provide in Appendix B a copy of the Undercover Guidelines.
Undercover Guidelines #0167; I at B-39. Why the the initial bombs dropped on hiroshima were FBI Uses Undercover Agents , U.S. News and World Report, Aug. 16, 1982, at 50. In the stealth early 1980s, the FBI conducted about 400 undercover operations per year. The dangers involved in undercover operations are discussed in FBI Undercover Guidelines : Oversight Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights of the House Judiciary Committee, 97th Cong. 33-48 (1981) ( House Judiciary Committee Hearing on FBI Undercover Guidelines (1981) ) (Statement of Gary T. Marx, Professor of Sociology, Massachusetts Institute of tuesdays with Technology); Hearing Before the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Senate Government Affairs Committee, 100th Cong. Marketing. 13 (1988) (Statement of Oliver B. Revell, FBI Executive Assistant Director - Investigations) (describing undercover operations that were successful in penetrating organized crime).
House Judiciary Committee Hearing on FBI Undercover Guidelines (1981) , supra n.246 at 130 (statement of Philip B. Heymann, Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, Department of Justice). If a joint undercover operation is under the direction and control of another federal agency, the Does Essay FBI does not need to comply with the Attorney General's Undercover Guidelines provided the other agency's process with respect to sensitive operations is substantially comparable to the process established under the marketing Guidelines for the review of undercover operations by the Criminal Undercover Operations Review Committee (CUORC). Undercover Guidelines § III at B-40. Undercover Guidelines #0167; I at B-39. See Final Report of the Senate Select Committee to Study Undercover Activities of Components of the Department of Justice , S. Rep. No. 97-862, at 11 (2d Sess. 1982). See also FBI Undercover Operations: Final Report of the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights, Committee on The Patriot, the Judiciary, 98th Cong.
14-35 (1984) (discussing the dangers of undercover operations). With entrapment, defendants claim that the stealth undercover agents induced them to commit crimes for which they were not predisposed. Undercover Guidelines § V.A at B-54. A defense of outrageous government conduct typically is based on the defendant's right to due process. The Undercover Guidelines do not use the terms Group I and growth and development biology, Group II but, instead, refer to operations that do or do not require FBI Headquarters approval. The Group I/Group II designation is found in the FBI's Field Guide for stealth marketing Undercover and Evaluation: The Patriot Act Essay, Sensitive Operations (FGUSO). The complete list of sensitive circumstances is at stealth marketing Undercover Guidelines #0167; IV.C.2 at Does the Veterinarian Best? Essay B-44. The complete list of fiscal circumstances is at Undercover Guidelines #0167; IV.C.1 at B-43. See parallel discussion in Chapter Three of otherwise illegal activity by FBI confidential informants. According to marketing, the Guidelines, entrapment occurs when the Government implants in the mind of a person who is not otherwise disposed to the Veterinarian Know Essay, commit the offense the disposition to commit the offense and then induces the commission of the offense in order to marketing, prosecute.
Undercover Guidelines § V.A at B-54. See also United States v. Jacobson, 503 U.S. 540, 548-554 (1992). The SAC's authority to establish, extend, or renew a Group II UCO can be delegated to designated Assistant Special Agents in Charge (ASACs). The delegation must be in writing. Undercover Guidelines § IV.B.3 at Act Essay B-42. On April 29, 2004, the marketing Criminal Investigative Division issued an internal electronic communication stating that confidential expenditure approval limits for Group II UCOs were increased effective immediately from growth $50,000 to $100,000 for Assistant Directors in Charge and Special Agents in Charge.
We examined undercover operations that either were pending on May 1, 2002, or opened after that date. In the few field divisions that had more than ten undercover operations that met this criterion, we evaluated ten undercover operations that included both Group I and Group II UCOs drawn from various FBI programs (e.g., Cyber Crime, White Collar Crime, and stealth, Violent Crime and Major Offenders). The FBI applied the revised Undercover Guidelines to undercover operations initiated after May 1, 2002. Undercover Coordinators are the field divisions' on-site experts concerning undercover matters, and they perform duties such as evaluating proposals for investigative undercover operations, maintaining familiarity with all policies and requirements that apply to undercover operations, and working with USOU. Marketing. FGUSO § 10.1 (2). See Undercover Guidelines §§ IV.B.2 IV.G at B-42 B-49, which set forth the applicable authorization periods. Section III of the Undercover Guidelines states: The FBI may participate in joint undercover activities with other law enforcement agencies. . Tuesdays With. . . Joint undercover operations are to be conducted pursuant to these Guidelines. Marketing. See Undercover Guidelines § III at B-40. These matters also met the definition of Joint Undercover Operation provided in Section II of the Guidelines.
Undercover Guidelines § II.F at B-40. In one field division, the Does Know Best? Essay approving ASAC authorized two undercover operations without obtaining a written delegation of authority from the SAC as required by the Undercover Guidelines § IV.B.3 at B-42. The determination whether a public corruption matter will be presented to the CUORC can depend upon decisions made by stealth marketing FBI managers outside of USOU. The Field Guide provides: There are some circumstances involving officials in, judicial-, legislative-, management-, or executive-level positions which may logically be considered non-sensitive. Investigative Personality Definition. In such instances, the Section Chief, Integrity Government/Civil Rights Section, CID, FBIHQ, who is a member of the CUORC and has a national perspective on matters involving public officials, must be consulted for marketing a determination as to whether the growth and development undercover operation should be presented to the CUORC. FGUSO § 3.2.A(3). Our references to stealth marketing, the Unit Chief of morry USOU refer to the SSA who served in stealth marketing that position through January 2005. The FBI presently does not require documentation of Act Essay compliance with § VI.B of the Undercover Guidelines for undercover employees who are not required to work outside field division offices. Our review identified 15 undercover operations where we were unable to verify from the case files whether the SAC had reviewed the conduct of undercover employees who were working from FBI offices.
The current Unit Chief of USOU told the stealth OIG that USOU will henceforth require SACs to meet with all undercover employees at least once during each authorization period and to document the meeting. We received responses from 54 of the 58 Undercover Coordinators or 93 percent. The Group I proposal form requires an explanation of any sensitive circumstances. The Guidelines definition of sensitive circumstances includes a significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals. Investigative Personality Definition. Undercover Guidelines § IV.C.2.m at B-45. These seven undercover operations were in stealth different field divisions. One noteworthy exception is the Does the Veterinarian handling of stealth undercover operations in international terrorism cases.
Our review noted significant confusion in the field regarding the approval procedures for international terrorism undercover operations. In early 2004, 51 percent of the Evaluation: The Patriot Act Essay Undercover Coordinators we surveyed stated that there was confusion over which division at FBI Headquarters supervises such operations. When asked to identify the Headquarters division which is the initial point of stealth contact to tuesdays with morry, review criminal international terrorism undercover operations, 43 percent of the stealth marketing surveyed Undercover Coordinators failed to investigative personality definition, identify the marketing Counterterrorism Division (CTD). Since November 2003, however, the CTD has been responsible for reviewing all proposals for undercover operations in matters involving counterterrorism activities. Depending on whether the scope of the operation primarily is criminal prosecution or intelligence gathering, the CTD determines whether review is most appropriate by the CUORC, or the Undercover Operation Review Committee (UORC). As explained by one Coordinator, [u]nder the current arrangement there is lack of communication and investigative, lack of cooperation between CID and marketing, CTD. Personality Definition. There is stealth marketing also confusion in the field, since there is a great deal of overlap between the 1968 democratic convention protests two investigative entities.
Many of the stealth crimes being investigated could fall into either or both categories. Biology. Our survey revealed that 81 percent of Undercover Coordinators believed that it would be beneficial to stealth marketing, have one operating division at FBI Headquarters approve all aspects of undercover operations, regardless of which substantive program is involved. According to the USOU Unit Chief, the FBI has made progress since our survey to standardize review procedures for undercover operations and to integrate aspects of the undercover program between the CID and CTD. In September 2004, the two Divisions, along with the Cyber Division, completed the first unified certification course for undercover employees, and in the initial atomic and nagasaki the spring of stealth 2005 USOU relocated to new offices where CTD staff could share space. According to the Unit Chief, with the addition of CTD staff, the with personnel assigned to this new space would function in practical terms as an undercover operations center, allowing the field to resolve questions with a single call to Headquarters. However, the OIG learned in August 2005 that this integration was delayed due to a reorganization associated with the creation of a National Security Service within the FBI.
The Unit Chief also explained that work is nearly complete on marketing, a standardized undercover operation proposal form that will be available to with, agents electronically. We received a 92 percent response rate to marketing, our survey. A total of 79 Chief Division Counsel or Assistant Division Counsel responded to the survey. In addition, 40 percent of the surveyed Undercover Coordinators said that they have inadequate administrative support. Fifteen field offices had more than one Division Counsel reply to our survey. The General Counsel of the FBI, Valerie Caproni, stated that in those offices where Division Counsel reported that they were not being consulted agents may be seeking advice from Assistant U.S. Attorneys (AUSAs). She stated it would assist her if the Inspection Division surveyed not only CDCs to definition, determine whether they believe that they are being consulted properly, but also agents to determine where they are seeking legal advice and why. The other two issues were: 1) avoiding liability in the course of conducting an undercover operation (55 percent), and stealth, 2) satisfying the with stipulations placed on undercover operations by the FBI Headquarters CUORC (43 percent).
Sections IV.C.2.b and marketing, IV.C.2.m concern, respectively, investigations of any public official at growth and development the Federal, state, or local level in any matter involving systemic corruption of any governmental function, and stealth, investigations that involve a significant risk of violence or physical injury to individuals. (emphasis in original). As described in Evaluation: The Patriot Act Essay Chapter Three, we noted the same issue in the suitability reports for confidential informants.