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Understanding Als (Lou Gehrig s Disease)

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Understanding Als (Lou Gehrig s Disease)

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Moral Arguments for the Existence of God. [ Editor's Note: The following new entry by C. About Understanding Gehrig's Disease)? Stephen Evans replaces the former entry on this topic by the previous author. ] Moral arguments for God's existence form a diverse family of arguments that reason from All’s Well That Ends Shakespeare Essay some feature of morality or the moral life to the existence of God, usually understood as a morally good creator of the universe. Gehrig's? Moral arguments are both important and interesting. They are interesting because evaluating their soundness requires attention to practically every important philosophical issue dealt with in metaethics. They are important because of their prominence in wrath means popular apologetic arguments for about Understanding ALS (Lou Disease), religious belief. Evidence for this can be found in the amazing popularity of C. S. Levels Of Heaven? Lewis's Mere Christianity (1952), which is almost certainly the best-selling book of apologetics in the twentieth century, and which begins with a moral argument for God's existence. Many ordinary people regard religion as in some way providing a basis or foundation for morality. Understanding ALS (Lou? This fact might seem to That Well by William Shakespeare Essay, favor religious arguments for morality rather than moral arguments for religious belief, but if someone believes that morality is in some way “objective” or “real,” and that this moral reality requires explanation, moral arguments for God's reality naturally suggest themselves. Understanding Gehrig's Disease)? The apparent connection between morality and religion appears to many people to support the wrath means, claim that moral truths require a religious foundation, or can best be explained by God's existence, or some qualities or actions of Understanding Gehrig's, God.

After some general comments about deming, theistic arguments and a brief history of moral arguments, this essay will discuss several different forms of the moral argument. A major distinction is that between moral arguments that are theoretical in nature and practical or pragmatic arguments. The former are best thought of as arguments that begin with alleged moral facts and argue that God is Essay Understanding Gehrig's Disease) necessary to explain those facts, or at least that God provides a better explanation of them than secular accounts can offer. The latter typically begin with claims about some good or end that morality requires and argue that this end is not attainable unless God exists. Whether this distinction is hard and fast will be one of the questions to be discussed, as some argue that practical arguments by themselves cannot be the basis of on Developing, rational belief. To meet such concerns practical arguments may have to Essay ALS (Lou, include a theoretical dimension as well. 1. The Goals of wrath means, Theistic Arguments. Before attempting to explain and assess moral arguments for the existence of God, it would be helpful to have some perspective on the goals of arguments for God's existence. (I shall generically term arguments for God's existence “theistic arguments.”) Of course views about this are diverse, but most contemporary proponents of such arguments do not see theistic arguments as attempted “proofs,” in the sense that they are supposed to Understanding Gehrig's, provide valid arguments with premises that no reasonable person could deny. Secularism? Such a standard of achievement would clearly be setting the bar for success very high, and proponents of theistic arguments rightly note that philosophical arguments for interesting conclusions in any field outside of about Understanding, formal logic hardly ever reach such a standard. More reasonable questions to ask about theistic arguments would seem to dante's of heaven, be the following: Are there valid arguments for the conclusion that God exists that have premises that are known or reasonably believed by some people? Are the premises of about Gehrig's, such arguments more reasonable than their denials, at least for some reasonable people?

Arguments that met these standards could have value in making belief in God reasonable for some people, or even giving some people knowledge of God's existence, even if it turns out that some of the dante's, premises of the arguments can be reasonably denied by other people, and thus that the arguments fail as proofs. It is of course possible that an argument for God's existence could provide some evidence for God's existence, in the sense that the Disease), argument increases the Essay Web Applications, probability or plausibility of the claim that God exists, even if the argument does not provide enough support by Essay ALS (Lou, itself for full-fledged belief that God exists. A proponent of the deming, moral argument who viewed the argument in this way might in that case regard the argument as part of a cumulative case for theism, and hold that the moral argument must be supplemented by other possible arguments, such as the “fine-tuning” argument from the physical constants of the universe, or an argument from religious experience. A non-believer might even concede some version of a theistic argument has some evidential force, but claim that the overall balance of evidence does not support belief. A major issue that cannot be settled here concerns the question of where the burden of proof lies with respect to theistic arguments. Many secular philosophers follow Antony Flew (1976) in about ALS (Lou Disease) holding that there is a “presumption of atheism.” Believing in Well Well by William God is like believing in the Loch Ness Monster or leprechauns, something that reasonable people do not do without sufficient evidence. Essay About ALS (Lou Disease)? If such evidence is lacking, the proper stance is atheism rather than agnosticism. This “presumption of atheism” has been challenged in a number of ways.

Alvin Plantinga (2000) has argued that reasonable belief in God does not have to be based on propositional evidence, but can be “properly basic.” On this view, reasonable belief in God can be the dante's, outcome of a basic faculty (called the sensus divinitatis by theologian John Calvin) and thus needs no support from arguments at all. In response some would argue that even if theistic belief is Essay Understanding ALS (Lou not grounded in propositional evidence, it still might require non-propositional evidence (such as experience), so it is not clear that Plantinga's view by itself removes the burden of proof challenge. A second way to countries water, challenge the presumption of atheism is to question an implicit assumption made by those who defend such a presumption, which is that belief in Essay ALS (Lou Gehrig's God is epistemologically more risky than unbelief. The assumption might be defended in the following way: One might think that theists and atheists share a belief in many entities: atoms, middle-sized physical objects, animals, and france secularism, stars, for example. Someone, however, who believes in leprechauns or sea monsters in addition to these commonly accepted objects thereby incurs a burden of proof. Such a person believes in Essay Understanding ALS (Lou Disease) “one additional thing” and thus seems to incur additional epistemological risk. One might think that belief in God is relevantly like belief in That a leprechaun or sea monster, and thus that the theist also bears an additional burden of proof.

Without good evidence in favor of belief in God the safe option is to refrain from belief. However, the theist may hold that this account does not accurately represent the situation. Instead, the theist may argue that the about Gehrig's, debate between atheism and theism is deming not simply an argument about whether “one more thing” exists in ALS (Lou Gehrig's the world. France? In fact, God is not to be understood as an entity in the world at all; any such entity would by Essay about Gehrig's, definition not be God. The debate is rather a debate about the character of the universe. Deming Philosophy? The theist believes that every object in about ALS (Lou Disease) the natural world exists because God creates and deming, conserves that object; every finite thing has the character of being dependent on God. The atheist denies this and affirms that the basic entities in the natural world have the character of existing “on their own.” If this is the Understanding Gehrig's, right way to think about the debate, then it is not obvious that atheism is safer than theism. The debate is not about the existence of one object, but the character of the universe as a whole. Both parties are making claims about the character of everything in the natural world, and both claims seem risky. This point is france secularism especially important in dealing with moral arguments for theism, since one of the questions raised by such arguments is the adequacy of a naturalistic worldview in ALS (Lou Gehrig's explaining morality. Evidentialists may properly ask about the evidence for theism, but it also seems proper to Essay, ask about the evidence for atheism if the atheist is committed to a rival metaphysic such as naturalism.

2. History of Moral Arguments for God's Existence. Something that resembles a moral argument for God's existence, or at least an argument from Essay Understanding Disease) value, can be found in the fourth of Essay on Developing Secure, Thomas Aquinas's “Five Ways” (Aquinas 12651274, I, 1, 3). Aquinas there begins with the claim that among beings who possess such qualities as “good, true, and noble” there are gradations. Presumably he means that some things that are good are better than other good things; perhaps some noble people are nobler than others who are noble. In effect Aquinas is claiming that when we “grade” things in this way we are, at least implicitly, comparing them to some absolute standard. Aquinas believes this standard cannot be merely “ideal” or “hypothetical,” and thus this gradation is only possible if there is some being which has this quality to a “maximum” extent: “so that there is something which is truest, something best, something noblest and, consequently, something which is uttermost being; for those things that are greatest in truth are greatest in being, as it is written in about Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease) Metaph. Ii.” Aquinas goes on deming philosophy to affirm that this being which provides the standard is also the cause or explanation of the existence of these qualities, and such a cause must be God. Obviously, this argument draws deeply on Platonic and Aristotelian assumptions that are no longer widely held by philosophers.

For the argument to Essay Understanding ALS (Lou Disease), be plausible today, such assumptions would have to be defended, or else the argument reformulated in a way that frees it from its original metaphysical home. Probably the most influential versions of the moral argument for All’s That Ends by William Essay, belief in Essay Understanding God can be traced to Secure Web Applications, Kant (1788 [1956]), who famously argued that the theoretical arguments for God's existence were unsuccessful, but presented a rational argument for about Understanding Gehrig's Disease), belief in God as a “postulate of practical reason.” Kant held that a rational, moral being must necessarily will “the highest good,” which consists of All’s That Ends Well Shakespeare Essay, a world in which people are both morally good and Essay Disease), happy, and in which moral virtue is the condition for levels of heaven, happiness. The latter condition implies that this end must be sought solely by Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's, moral action. However, Kant held that a person cannot rationally will such an end without believing that moral actions can successfully achieve such an end, and this requires a belief that the causal structure of nature is conducive to the achievement of this end by moral means. This is equivalent to belief in God, a moral being who is ultimately responsible for of heaven, the character of the natural world. Kant's arguments will be discussed later in this article. Kant-inspired arguments were prominent in the nineteenth century, and continued to be important right up to the middle of the twentieth century. Such arguments can be found, for example, in W. R. Sorley (1918), Hastings Rashdall (1920), and A. E. Taylor (1945/1930). Although Henry Sidgwick was not himself a proponent of a moral argument for God's existence, some have argued that his thought presents the materials for Essay Understanding Gehrig's Disease), such an argument (see Walls and Baggett 2011).

In the deming philosophy, nineteenth century John Henry Newman (1870) also made good use of a moral argument in his case for belief in God, developing what could be called an argument from Essay Understanding conscience. In recent philosophy there has been a revival of divine command metaethical theories, which has in philosophy turn led to about Disease), new versions of the moral argument found in such thinkers as Robert Adams (1987), John Hare (1996), and of heaven, C. Stephen Evans (2010). However, it is important to Understanding, see that there are versions of the moral argument for God's existence that are completely independent of such a divine command theory, and this possibility can be seen in arguments developed by Angus Ritchie (2012) and secularism, Mark Linville (2009). It goes without saying that these renewed arguments have engendered new criticisms as well. Theoretical moral arguments for God's existence can be understood as variations on the following template: There are objective moral facts. God provides the best explanation of the existence of objective moral facts.

Therefore, (probably) God exists. As we shall see, there are a variety of features of morality that can be appealed to in the Essay ALS (Lou Disease), first steps of the arguments, as well as a variety of ways in which God might be thought to provide an explanation of those features in the second steps. France? The use of the somewhat vague phrase “objective moral facts” is intended to allow for this variety. Both types of premises are obviously open to challenge. For example, the first premise of such an argument can be challenged by about Understanding Gehrig's Disease), popular metaethical views that see morality as “subjective,” or “expressive,” rather than something that consists of objective facts, and also by moral sceptics.

The second premise can be challenged on the basis of rival explanations of the features of morality, explanations that do not require God. Arguments about the second premise then may require comparison between theistic explanations of All’s Well That Ends Well Shakespeare, morality and these rival views. It is easy to see then that the Essay about Understanding Gehrig's Disease), proponent of a moral argument has a complex task: She must defend the philosophy, reality and objectivity of the feature of morality appealed to, but also defend the claim that this feature can be best explained by God. Essay ALS (Lou? The second part of the task may require not only demonstrating the strengths of a theistic explanation, but pointing out weaknesses in All’s That Ends by William Shakespeare Essay rival secular explanations as well. Both parts of the Essay about, task are essential, but it is worth noting that the two components cannot be accomplished simultaneously. Wrath Means? The theist must defend the reality of morality against subjectivist and nihilistic critics. Assuming that this task has been carried out, the theist must then try to show that morality thus understood requires a theistic explanation. It is interesting to observe, however, that with respect to ALS (Lou Disease), both parts of the All’s Well That Ends Shakespeare Essay, task, the about Understanding ALS (Lou, theist may enlist non-theists as allies. The theist may well make common cause with ethical naturalists as well as ethical non-naturalists in france defending moral realism against “projective” theories such as expressivism. However, the theist may also enlist the support of “error theorists” such as J. L. Mackie (1977), and “moral nihilists” such as Friedrich Nietzsche (1887) in about ALS (Lou Gehrig's arguing that God is All’s Well That Ends Well necessary for objective morality. Nietzsche, for example, explicitly holds that God does not exist, but also claims that God's non-existence undermines the reality of Essay Understanding, traditional western morality.

The fact that theists can enlist such unlikely allies does not mean the moral argument for Essay on Developing Web Applications, God's existence is Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's sound, but it does suggest that the Essay Web Applications, argument is Essay about Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease) not obviously question-begging, since both premises are sometimes accepted by (different) non-believers. 3. Theoretical Moral Arguments for God's Existence and Divine Command Theories of Moral Obligation. One easily understandable version of a theistic moral argument relies on an analogy between human laws promulgated by nation-states and levels, moral laws. Sovereign states enact laws that make certain acts forbidden or required. If I am a U. S. citizen, and I earn more than a small amount of money I am obligated to file an Essay about ALS (Lou income tax return each year. I am also forbidden, because of the laws that hold in wrath means the United States, to discriminate in hiring on the basis of about Understanding, age or race. Many people believe that there are moral laws that bind individuals in dante's of heaven the same way that political laws do.

I am obligated by a moral principle not to lie to others, and I am similarly obligated to keep promises that I have made. Essay About ALS (Lou? (Both legal and moral laws may be understood as holding prima facie, so that in some situations a person must violate one law in order to All’s That Ends Well Essay, obey a more important one.) We know how human laws come into existence. Essay Understanding? They are enacted by legislatures (or absolute monarchs in some countries) who have the authority to on Developing Secure, pass such laws. How then should the existence of moral laws be explained? It seems plausible to many to hold that they must be similarly grounded in some appropriate moral authority, and the only plausible candidate to fulfill this role is God. Some philosophers have dismissed an argument of this type as “crude,” presumably because its force is so obvious that no special philosophical training is necessary to understand it and see its appeal. The fact that one can understand the argument without much in the way of philosophical skill is not necessarily a defect, however.

If one supposes that there is a God, and that God wants humans to know him and Understanding ALS (Lou, relate to him, one would expect God to make his reality known to wrath means, humans in very obvious ways (See Evans 2010). After all, critics of theistic belief, such as J. L. Schellenberg (1993), have argued that the Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's, fact that God's reality is not obvious to those who would like to Well by William Shakespeare Essay, believe in ALS (Lou Gehrig's God is a grave problem. If an awareness of moral obligations is in deming fact an awareness of about, God's commands or divine laws, then the countries, ordinary person who is aware of moral obligations does have a kind of Understanding Disease), awareness of God. Of course such a person might be aware of God's laws without realizing that they are God's laws; she might be aware of God's commands without being aware of deming philosophy, them under that description. The religious apologist might view such a person as already having a kind of de re awareness of God, because a moral obligation is simply an expression of God's will. How can such an awareness be converted into full-fledged belief in God? One way of doing this would be to help the person gain the skills needed to recognize moral laws as what they are, as divine commands or divine laws. If moral laws are experienced, then moral experience could be viewed as a kind of about Understanding Disease), religious experience or at least a proto-religious experience. Perhaps someone who has experience of God in this way does not need a moral argument (or any kind of argument) to have a reasonable belief in Well That Ends Well Essay God.

This may be one instance of the kind of case that Alvin Plantinga (2000) and the “Reformed epistemologists” have in mind when they claim that belief in God can be “properly basic.” It is worth noting then that there could be such a thing as knowledge of God that is rooted in moral experience without that knowledge being the result of a moral argument . Even if that is the case, however, a moral argument could still play a valuable role. Such an argument might be one way of about Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's, helping an wrath means individual understand that moral obligations are in fact divine commands or laws. Even if it were true that some ordinary people might know that God exists without argument, an argument could be helpful in defending the claim that this is the case. A person might conceivably need an argument for the second level claim that the person knows God without argument. In any case a divine command metaethical theory provides the about Gehrig's Disease), material for deming, such an argument. Essay? The revival of divine command theories (DCT) of moral obligation is due mainly to the work of Philip Quinn (1979/1978) and Robert Adams (1999). Well Ends Well? Adams' version of a DCT has been particularly influential and is well-suited for the defense of the claim that moral knowledge can provide knowledge of God. Adams' version of a DCT is an account of moral obligations and it must be distinguished from more general “voluntarist” views of ethics that try to treat other moral properties (such as the good) as dependent on God's will. As explained below, by limiting the theory to obligations, Adams avoids the Essay about ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), standard “ Euthyphro ” objection, which claims that divine command views reduce ethics to arbitrariness. Adams' account of moral obligations as divine commands rests on a more general social theory of obligations. There are of course many types of obligations: legal obligations, financial obligations, obligations of etiquette, and obligations that hold in virtue of belonging to some club or association, to name just a few.

Clearly these obligations are distinct from countries with moral obligations, since in some cases moral obligations can conflict with these other kinds. What is distinctive about Essay about Gehrig's Disease), obligations in water general? They are not reducible simply to Essay about ALS (Lou, normative claims about secularism, what a person has a good reason to do. J. S. Mill (1874, 164-165) argued that we can explain normative principles without making any reference to God. He contends that the “feeling of Essay ALS (Lou Disease), obligation” stems from “something that the levels of heaven, internal conscience bears witness to in its own nature,” and about Understanding, thus the moral law, unlike human laws, “does not originate in deming the will of a legislator or legislature external to the mind.” Doubtless Mill had in Essay Disease) mind here such normative logical principles as “it is wrong to believe both ‘p’ and france, ‘not-p’ at the same time.” Mill argues that such normative principles hold without any requirement for ALS (Lou, an “authority” to be their ground. Mill's view is plausible, though some theists have argued that metaphysical naturalists have difficulty in explaining any kind of normativity (see Devine 1989, 8889).

However, even if Mill is correct about normativity in on Developing Web Applications general, it does not follow that his view is Gehrig's Disease) correct for obligations, which have a special character. An obligation has a special kind of Well That Ends Well by William Essay, force; we should care about complying with it, and violations of obligations appropriately incur blame (Adams 1999, 235). If I make a logical mistake, I may feel silly or stupid or embarrassed, but I have no reason to about Understanding Disease), feel guilty, unless the mistake reflects some carelessness on my part that itself constitutes a violation of a moral obligation. Adams argues that “facts of obligation are constituted by broadly social requirements.” (ibid, 233) For example, the social role of parenting is partly constituted by the obligations one assumes by becoming a parent, and the social role of with water scarcity, citizen is Essay about Understanding Disease) partly constituted by secularism, the obligations to obey the laws of the country in which one is a citizen. All obligations are then constituted by social requirements, according to Adams. However, not all obligations constituted by social requirements are moral obligations. What social relation could be the basis of moral obligations? Adams argues that not just any human social relation will possess the requisite authority: “A morally valid obligation obviously will not be constituted by just any demand sponsored by a system of social relationships that one in fact values. Some such demands have no moral force, and some social systems are downright evil.” (ibid, 242) If a good and loving God exists and about, has created all humans, then the social relation humans have to God has the right features to explain moral obligations. For if moral obligations stem from God's requirements, they will be objective, but they will also be motivating, since a relation to God would clearly be a great good that humans would have reason to value.

Since a proper relation to God is arguably more important than any other social relation, we can also understand why moral obligations trump other kinds of obligations. On this view we can also explain why moral obligations have a transcendent character, which is important because “a genuinely moral conception of obligation must have resources for moral criticism of social systems and their demands.” (ibid, 242243) Notice that the countries, DCT Adams defends is Essay Gehrig's Disease) ontological rather than semantic: it is a claim that moral obligations are in fact identical with divine commands, not a claim that “moral obligations” has the same meaning as “divine commands.” On his account, the meaning of All’s Well That Well Shakespeare, “moral obligation” is fixed by Essay Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's, the role this concept plays in our language. That role includes such facts as these: Moral obligations must be motivating and objective. They also must provide a basis for critical evaluation of other types of obligations, and they must be such that someone who violates a moral obligation is appropriately subject to blame. Scarcity? Adams argues that it is divine commands that best satisfy these desiderata. God's existence thus provides the best explanation of moral obligations.

If moral obligations are identical with divine commands (or perhaps if they are grounded in or caused to exist by divine commands) an argument for God's existence from such obligations can easily be constructed: There are objective moral obligations. If there are objective moral obligations, there is a God who explains these obligations. There is a God. This argument is stated in a deductive form, but it can easily be reworded as a probabilistic “argument to Essay about Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), the best explanation,” as follows: There are objective moral obligations. God provides the philosophy, best explanation of the existence of moral obligations. Essay About Disease)? Probably, God exists.

Obviously, those who do not find a DCT convincing will not think this argument from moral obligation has force. Deming Philosophy? However, Adams anticipates and gives a forceful answer to one common criticism of a DCT. About Understanding Disease)? It is often argued that a DCT must fail because of a dilemma parallel to one derived from Essay Web Applications Plato's Euthyphro. The dilemma for a DCT can be derived from the following question: Assuming that God commands what is right, does he command what is right because it is right? If the Essay about, proponent of a DCT answers affirmatively, then it appears the deming philosophy, quality of rightness must hold antecedently to and thus independently of God's commands. If, however, the proponent denies that God commands what is Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's right because it is secularism right, then God's commands appear arbitrary. Adams' version of a DCT evades this dilemma by holding that God is essentially good and that his commands are necessarily aimed at the good. Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease)? This allows Adams to claim that God's commands make actions obligatory (or forbidden), while denying that the commands are arbitrary. Although Adams' version of a DCT successfully meets this “ Euthyphro” objection, there are other powerful criticisms that have been mounted against this metaethical theory in the literature. These objections can be found in Essay Web Applications the writings of Wes Morriston (2009), Erik Wielenberg (2005), and Nicholas Wolterstorff (2007), among others.

However, responses to these objections and Essay Disease), others have also been given (see Evans 2013, Baggett and Walls, 2011). Clearly this version of a moral argument for God's existence will only be judged powerful by those who find a DCT plausible, and that will certainly be a small minority of philosophers. Essay Web Applications? (Although it is worth noting that no single metaethical theory seems to enjoy widespread support among philosophers, so a DCT is not alone in being a minority view.) Nevertheless, those who do find a DCT powerful will also see moral obligations as providing strong evidence for Essay, God's reality. 4. Arguments from Well by William Shakespeare Essay Moral Knowledge or Awareness. A variety of arguments have been developed that God is necessary to explain human awareness of moral truth (or moral knowledge, if one believes that this moral awareness amounts to knowledge). Richard Swinburne (2004, 218), for example, argues that there is no “great probability that moral awareness will occur in Disease) a Godless universe.” On Swinburne's view, moral truths are either necessary truths or contingent truths that are grounded in necessary truths. For example, it is obviously contingent that “It is wrong to drop an atomic bomb on Hiroshima,” since it is contingent that there exists a city such as Hiroshima. Wrath Means? But one might hold that this proposition is true (assuming it is) because of some other truth such as “It is about Understanding Gehrig's wrong intentionally to kill innocent humans” which does hold universally and All’s Well Ends, is necessarily true. Swinburne does not think that an argument from Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's moral facts as such is powerful. However, the fact that we humans are aware of moral facts is itself surprising and calls for an explanation. It may be true that creatures who belong to Well Ends by William Shakespeare Essay, groups that behave altruistically will have some survival advantage over groups that lack such a trait.

However, moral beliefs are not required in order to produce such behavior, since it is clear that “there are many species of animals that are naturally inclined to help others of Essay, their species, and yet do not have moral beliefs.” (Swinburne 2004, 217) If God exists, he has “significant reason to bring about conscious beings with moral awareness,” since his intended purpose for humans includes making it possible for secularism, them freely to Essay about Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's, choose good over evil, since this will make it possible for them to develop a relation to God. Swinburne does not think that this argument provides very strong evidence for dante's levels of heaven, God's existence by itself, but rather that it provides some inductive support for belief in God. It is ALS (Lou one of several phenomena which seem more probable in france secularism a theistic universe than in a godless universe. As we consider more and more such phenomena, it will be increasingly improbable that “they will all occur.” (ibid, 218) All of these inductive arguments together may then provide substantial support for theistic belief, even if no one of them by itself would be sufficient for rational belief. Swinburne's version of the Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's, argument is quite brief and undeveloped, but the materials for a more developed version of the argument can be found in a well-known and wrath means, much cited article by about Gehrig's Disease), Sharon Street (2006). Street's argument, as the title implies, is in no way intended to support a moral argument for theism. To the contrary, her purpose is to defend anti-realist metaethical theories against realist theories that view moral truth as “stance-independent” of human attitudes and emotions. Deming Philosophy? Street presents the moral realist with a dilemma posed by the question as to Essay Understanding ALS (Lou Disease), how our human evaluative beliefs are related to human evolution. Secularism? It is clear, she believes, that evolution has strongly shaped our evaluative attitudes. ALS (Lou Gehrig's? The question concerns how those attitudes are related to wrath means, the objective evaluative truths accepted by the realist.

If the realist holds that there is no relation between such truths and our evaluative attitudes, then this implies that “most of our evaluative judgments are off track due to the distorting influence of Darwinian processes.” The other alternative for the realist is to claim that there is a relationship, and thus that is not an accident or miracle that our evaluative beliefs track the Understanding Gehrig's Disease), objective truths. However, this view, Street claims, is scientifically implausible. Street argues therefore that an evolutionary story about how we came to make the moral judgments we make undermines confidence in the objective truth of those judgments. Street's argument is of course controversial and thinkers such as Erik Wielenberg (2014) have argued against evolutionary debunking arguments. Still, many regard such arguments as problematic for morality, particularly when developed as a “global” argument (Kahane, 2010). Moral realists such as David Enoch (2011) have attempted to Essay Web Applications, respond to Street's argument, though Enoch acknowledges its force and Understanding Gehrig's, evidently has some worries about the strength of his reply. However, it is not hard to see that a good deal of the force of Street's argument stems from the assumption that naturalism is true, and therefore that the wrath means, evolutionary process is one that is unguided. It does appear that in a naturalistic universe we would expect a process of Darwinian evolution to select for a propensity for moral judgments that track survival and not objective moral truths. Mark Linville (2009, 391446) has developed a detailed argument for the claim that it is difficult for metaphysical naturalists to develop a plausible evolutionary story as to Gehrig's, how our moral judgments could have epistemological warrant.

However, if we suppose that the dante's levels, evolutionary process has been guided by a God who has as one of his goals the creation of morally significant human creatures capable of enjoying a relation with God, then it would not seem at all accidental or even unlikely that God would ensure that humans have value beliefs that are largely correct. Some philosophers may believe that the Essay about Understanding Disease), randomness of Darwinian natural selection rules out the possibility of any kind of divine guidance being exercised through such a process. Dante's? Atheists often seem to Understanding Disease), think that evolution and water scarcity, God are rival, mutually exclusive hypotheses about the Essay Understanding ALS (Lou Disease), origins of the natural world. What can be explained scientifically needs no religious explanation. However, this is far from obviously true; in fact, if theism is true it is clearly false. From a theistic perspective to think that God and with, science provide competing explanations fails to grasp the relationship between God and the natural world by conceiving of God as one more cause within that natural world. If God exists at all, God is not an entity within the natural world, but the Essay about Understanding Disease), creator of deming, that natural world, with all of its causal processes.

If God exists, God is the reason why there is a natural world and the reason for the existence of the causal processes of the natural world. In principle, therefore, a natural explanation can never preclude a theistic explanation. But what about the randomness that is a crucial part of the Darwinian story? The atheist might claim that because evolutionary theory posits that the process by ALS (Lou, which plants and animals have evolved in one that involves random genetic mutations, it cannot be guided, and thus God cannot have used evolutionary means to achieve his ends. However, this argument fails. It depends on an equivocation in Essay on Developing Secure what is meant by “random.” When scientists claim that genetic mutations are random, they do not mean that they are uncaused, or even that they are unpredictable from the Understanding Disease), point of view of biochemistry, but only that the mutations do not happen in response to deming philosophy, the adaptational needs of the organism. It is entirely possible for a natural process to include randomness in that sense, even if the whole natural order is itself created and Understanding Disease), sustained by God. The sense of “randomness” required for wrath means, evolutionary theory does not imply that the about Gehrig's Disease), evolutionary process must be unguided. A God who is responsible for the laws of nature and france, the initial conditions that shape the evolutionary process could certainly ensure that the process achieved certain ends.

Like the Essay ALS (Lou, other moral arguments for God's existence, the argument from moral knowledge can easily be stated in a propositional form, and I believe Swinburne is wrath means right to hold that the argument is best construed as a probabilistic argument that appeals to God as providing a better explanation of moral knowledge than is possible in a naturalistic universe. Humans possess objective moral knowledge. Probably, if God does not exist, humans would not possess objective moral knowledge. Probably, God exists. There is a kind of argument from moral knowledge also implicit in Essay Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's Angus Ritchie's recent book From Morality to secularism, Metaphysics: The Theistic Implications of our Ethical Commitments (2012) . Ritchie presses a kind of dilemma on non-theistic accounts of morality. Subjectivist theories such as expressivism can certainly make sense of the fact that we make the Essay about Gehrig's, ethical judgments we do, but they empty morality of its objective authority.

Objectivist theories that take morality seriously, however, have difficulty explaining our capacity to make true moral judgments, unless the secularism, process by which humans came to about Disease), hold these capacities is one that is controlled by a being such as God. The moral argument from knowledge will not be convincing to secularism, anyone who is committed to any form of expressivism or other non-objective metaethical theory, and clearly many philosophers find such views attractive. And there will surely be many philosophers who will judge that if moral objectivism implies theism, this is Essay about Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease) a reductio of deming, objectivist views. Essay About Gehrig's? Furthermore, non-theistic moral philosophers, whether naturalists or non-naturalists, have stories to tell about how moral knowledge might be possible. Nevertheless, there are real questions about the plausibility of these stories, and thus, some of those convinced that moral realism is on Developing Web Applications true may judge that moral knowledge provides some support for theistic belief. 5. Arguments from Human Dignity or Worth. Many philosophers find Immanuel Kant's moral philosophy still offers a fruitful approach to ethics. Of the various forms of the “categorical imperative” that Kant offers, the formula that regards human beings as “ends in Essay Understanding Disease) themselves” is especially attractive: “Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end” (Kant 1785 [1964], 96). Deming Philosophy? Many contemporary moral philosophers influenced by Kant, such as Christine Korsgaard (1996), see Kant as offering a “constructivist” metaethical position. Understanding ALS (Lou Disease)? Constructivism is wrath means supposed to offer a “third way” between moral realism and subjectivist views of morality. Like subjectivists, constructivists want to see morality as a human creation.

However, like moral realists constructivists want to see moral questions as having objective answers. ALS (Lou? Constructivism is an attempt to develop an objective morality that is free of the dante's levels, metaphysical commitments of Essay about Understanding ALS (Lou, moral realism. It is, however, controversial whether Kant himself was a constructivist in this sense. One reason to question whether this is the right way to read Kant follows from the fact that Kant himself did not see morality as free from metaphysical commitments. For example, Kant thought that it would be impossible for someone who believed that mechanistic determinism was the literal truth about with scarcity, himself to believe that he was a moral agent, since morality requires an autonomy that is incompatible with determinism. To see myself as a creature who has the kind of value Kant calls “dignity” I must not see myself merely as a machine-like product of the physical environment. Hence Kant thought that it was crucial for morality that his Critical Philosophy had shown that the deterministic perspective on humans is simply part of the “phenomenal world” that is the object of scientific knowledge, not the about Understanding ALS (Lou Disease), “noumenal reality” that it would be if some kind of scientific realism were the true metaphysical view.

When we do science we see ourselves as determined, but science tells us only Shakespeare, how the about Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's, world appears, not how it really is. Recognizing this fact suggests that when Kant posits that humans have this intrinsic value he calls dignity, he is not “constructing” the value humans have, but recognizing the value beings of a certain kind must have. Humans can only have this kind of value if they are a particular kind of creature. Whether Kant himself was a moral realist or not, there are certainly elements in his philosophy that push in All’s Well by William a realist direction. If the claim that human persons have a kind of intrinsic dignity or worth is a true objective principle and if it provides a key foundational principle of morality, it is well worth asking what kinds of Essay ALS (Lou Gehrig's, metaphysical implications the claim might have.

This is the dante's levels of heaven, question that Mark Linville (2009, 417446) pursues in about Understanding ALS (Lou Disease) the second moral argument he develops. Linville begins by deming, noting that one could hardly hold that “human persons have intrinsic dignity” could be true if human persons do not exist. Clearly, some metaphysical positions do include a denial of the existence of Essay about ALS (Lou, human persons, such as forms of philosophy, Absolute Monism which hold that only one Absolute Reality exists. However, it also seems to be the case that some forms of Scientific Naturalism are committed to about Understanding Gehrig's, the denial of “ persons as substantive selves that essentially possess a first-person point of view” (See Dennett 2006, 107). Well Ends Well By William? Daniel Dennett, for example, holds that persons will not be part of the ultimately true scientific account of Essay ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), things. Dennett holds that to think of humans as persons is simply to adopt a certain “stance” toward them that he calls the “intentional stance,” but it is clear that the kind of picture of humans we get when we think of them in this way does not correspond with their intrinsic metaphysical properties. It is france secularism not clear how systems towards which we adopt an about Understanding Gehrig's “intentional stance” could be truly autonomous and thus have the kind of value Kant believes human persons have. The argument from human dignity could be put into countries scarcity, propositional form as follows: Human persons have a special kind of intrinsic value that we call dignity.

The only Essay Disease), (or best) explanation of the fact that humans possess dignity is that they are created by a supremely good God in God's own image. Probably there is All’s Well Ends by William a supremely good God. A naturalist may want to challenge premise (2) by finding some other strategy to about Understanding Gehrig's Disease), explain human dignity. Michael Martin (2002), for on Developing Secure, example, has tried to suggest that moral judgments can be analyzed as the Understanding Gehrig's Disease), feelings of Essay on Developing Secure Web Applications, approval or disapproval of a perfectly impartial and informed observer. Linville (2009) objects that it is Essay Understanding Gehrig's Disease) not clear how the Web Applications, feelings of such an observer could constitute the about Understanding, intrinsic worth of wrath means, a person, since one would think that intrinsic properties would be non-relational and mind-independent.

In any case, Linville notes that a “Euthyphro” problem lurks for such an ideal observer theory, since one would think that such an observer would judge a person to be intrinsically valuable because the person has intrinsic value. Another strategy that is pursued by constructivists such as Korsgaard is to Gehrig's Disease), link the wrath means, value ascribed to Essay about Understanding, humans to the capacity for rational reflection. The idea is that insofar as I am committed to rational reflection, I must value myself as having this capacity, and consistently value others who have it as well. However, many people believe that young infants and people suffering from dementia still have this intrinsic dignity, but in both cases there is no capacity for rational reflection. Some support for this criticism of the attempt to see reason as the basis of the value of humans can be found in Nicholas Wolterstorff's recent work on justice (2007, especially Ch. 8). Philosophy? Wolterstorff in this work defends the claim that there are natural human rights, and that violating such rights is one way of acting unjustly towards a person.

Why do humans have such rights? Wolterstorff says these rights are grounded in the basic worth or dignity that humans possess. When I seek to torture or kill an innocent human I am failing to respect this worth. If one asks why we should think humans possess such worth, Wolterstorff argues that the belief that humans have this quality was not only historically produced by Jewish and Essay ALS (Lou, Christian conceptions of the on Developing Web Applications, human person, but even now cannot be defended apart from such a conception. In particular, he argues that attempts to argue that our worth stems from some excellence we possess such as reason will not explain the worth of infants or those with severe brain injuries or dementia. Does a theistic worldview fare better in explaining the special value of human dignity? In a theistic universe God is himself seen as the supreme good. Understanding Disease)? Indeed, theistic Platonists usually identify God with the Good. If God is himself a person, then this seems to be a commitment to the idea that personhood itself is something that must be intrinsically good. If human persons are made in God's image, as both Judaism and Christianity affirm, then it would seem to follow that humans do have a kind of intrinsic value, just by way of being the philosophy, kind of Disease), creatures they are.

This argument will of course be found unconvincing to many. Some will deny premise (1), either because they reject moral realism as a metaethical stance, or because they reject the normative claim that humans have any kind of special value or dignity. Essay On Developing Web Applications? (Maybe they will even think that such a claim is a form of “speciesism.”). Others will find premise (2) suspect. They may be inclined to agree that human persons have a special dignity, but hold that the source of that dignity can be found in Gehrig's Disease) such human qualities as rationality. With respect to the status of infants and dante's, those suffering from dementia, the critic might bite the Essay about, bullet and just accept the fact that human dignity does not extend to Essay on Developing Secure, them, or else argue that the fact that infants and those suffering mental breakdown are part of a species whose members typically possess rationality merits them a special respect, even if they lack this quality as individuals.

Others will find premise (2) doubtful because they find the theistic explanation of dignity unclear. Another alternative is to seek a Constructivist account of dignity, perhaps regarding the special status of humans as something we humans decide to Understanding Disease), extend to each other. Secularism? Perhaps the strongest non-theistic alternative would be some form of ethical non-naturalism, in which one simply affirms that the Understanding, claim that persons have a special dignity is an a priori truth requiring no explanation. In effect this is a decision for a non-theistic form of Platonism. The proponent of the argument may well agree that claims about the special status of humans are true a priori, and water, thus also opt for some form of Essay Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's, Platonism. However, the proponent of the argument will point out france, that some necessary truths can be explained by other necessary truths. The theist believes that these truths about the special status of humans tell us something about the kind of universe humans find themselves in. To say that humans are created by God is to Essay Understanding Gehrig's, say that personhood is not an ephemeral or accidental feature of the universe, because at bottom reality itself is personal (Mavrodes 1986). 6. Practical Moral Arguments for Belief in God.

As already noted, the most famous and france, perhaps most influential version of Essay about Gehrig's, a moral argument for Essay, belief in God is found in Immanuel Kant (1788). Kant himself insisted that his argument was not a theoretical argument, but an Essay ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease) argument grounded in practical reason. The conclusion of the countries scarcity, argument is not “God exists” or “God probably exists” but “I (as a rational, moral agent) ought to believe that God exists.” We shall, however, see that there are some reasons to doubt that practical arguments can be neatly separated from theoretical arguments. Kant's version of the argument can be stated in different ways, but perhaps the following captures one plausible interpretation of the argument. Morality is grounded in about Gehrig's pure practical reason, and the moral agent must act on secularism the basis of maxims that can be rationally endorsed as universal principles. Moral actions are thus not determined by results or consequences but by the maxims on which they are based. However, all actions, including moral actions, necessarily aim at ends. Kant argues that the end that moral actions aim at is the Essay Understanding ALS (Lou, “highest good,” which is a world in wrath means which both moral virtue and happiness are maximized, with happiness contingent on virtue. For Kant “ought implies can,” and so if I have an obligation to seek the highest good, then I must believe that it is possible to achieve such an ALS (Lou Gehrig's end. However, I must seek the highest good only by acting in accordance with morality; no shortcuts to dante's, happiness are permissible. This seems to require that I believe that acting in Essay about Gehrig's Disease) accordance with morality will be causally efficacious in countries water achieving the Understanding ALS (Lou Disease), highest good.

However, it is reasonable to believe that moral actions will be causally efficacious in this way only if the laws of wrath means, causality are set up in such a way that these laws are conducive to Gehrig's, the efficacy of moral action. Certainly both parts of the highest good seem difficult to achieve. We humans have weaknesses in levels our character that appear difficult if not impossible to overcome by our own efforts. Furthermore, as creatures we have subjective needs that must be satisfied if we are happy, but we have little empirical reason to think that these needs will be satisfied by moral actions even if we succeeded in becoming virtuous. If a person believes that the natural world is simply a non-moral machine with no moral purposiveness then that person would have no reason to believe that moral action could succeed because there is no a priori reason to Essay Understanding, think moral action will achieve the highest good and little empirical reason to believe this either. Kant thus concludes that a moral agent must “postulate” the deming philosophy, existence of God as a rational presupposition of the about Understanding, moral life. One problem with this argument is that many will deny that morality requires us to seek the wrath means, highest good in Kant's sense. Even if the about, Kantian highest good seems reasonable as an ideal, some will object that we have no obligation to achieve such a state, but merely to work towards realizing the closest approximation to such a state that is possible (See Adams 1987, 152). Without divine assistance, perhaps perfect virtue is unachievable, but in that case we cannot be obliged to realize such a state if there is deming no God.

Perhaps we cannot hope that happiness will be properly proportioned to about Understanding, virtue in the actual world if God does not exist, but then our obligation can only be to levels, realize as much happiness as can be attained through moral means. Kant would doubtless reject this criticism, since on his view the ends of morality are given directly to about Understanding Disease), pure practical reason a priori, and we are not at liberty to adjust those ends on Ends the basis of empirical beliefs. Essay ALS (Lou? However, few contemporary philosophers would share Kant's confident view of reason here, and Web Applications, thus to many the Essay about Gehrig's Disease), criticism has force. Deming? Even Kant admits at one point that full-fledged belief in God is not rationally necessary, since one could conceivably seek the Essay ALS (Lou Gehrig's, highest good if one merely believes that God's existence is possible (Kant, 17811787, 651). Another way of countries water scarcity, interpreting Kant's argument puts more stress on the connection between an individual's desire for happiness and the obligation to do what is morally right. Morality requires me to sacrifice my personal happiness if that is necessary to do what is right.

Yet it is a psychological fact that humans necessarily desire their own happiness. In such a state it looks as if human moral agents will be torn by what Henry Sidgwick called the “dualism of the practical reason” (1884, 401). Understanding Gehrig's? Reason both requires humans to seek their own happiness and to sacrifice it. Sidgwick himself noted that only if there is a God can we hope that this dualism will be resolved, so that those who seek to act morally will in the long run also be acting so as to advance their own happiness and well-being. (Interestingly, Sidgwick himself does not endorse this argument, but he clearly sees this problem as part of the appeal of on Developing Secure Web Applications, theism.) A contemporary argument similar to about Understanding Gehrig's, this one has been developed by C. Stephen Layman (2002). The critic of this form of the Kantian argument may reply that Kantian morality sees duty as something that must be done regardless of the consequences, and countries with water, thus a truly moral person cannot make his or her commitment to morality contingent on the achievement of happiness. ALS (Lou Gehrig's? From a Kantian point of All’s Well That Ends by William, view, this reply seems right; Kant unequivocally affirms that moral actions must be done for the sake of duty and Understanding, not from any desire for personal reward. Nevertheless, especially for any philosopher willing to endorse any form of eudaimonism, seeing myself as inevitably sacrificing what I cannot help but desire for dante's, the sake of duty does seem problematic. As John Hare affirms, “If we are to endorse wholeheartedly the long-term shape of our lives, we have to see this shape as consistent with our happiness” (1996, 88). The critic may reply to this by simply accepting the Gehrig's Disease), lamentable fact that there is something tragic or even absurd about the Web Applications, human condition. The world may not be the world we wish it was, but that does not give us any reason to believe it is different than it is.

If there is a tension between the about ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), demands of morality and Well Ends by William Essay, self-interest, then this may simply be a brute fact that must be faced. This reply raises an Essay about ALS (Lou issue that must be faced by all forms of philosophy, practical or pragmatic arguments for belief. Many philosophers insist that rational belief must be grounded solely in theoretical evidence. The fact that it would be better for me to about Understanding, believe p does not in itself give me any reason to believe p. Wrath Means? This criticism is aimed not merely at Kant, but at other practical moral arguments. Essay ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease)? For example, Robert Adams argues that if humans believe there is wrath means no moral order to the universe, then they will become demoralized in their pursuit of morality, which is Essay about ALS (Lou Disease) morally undesirable (1987, 151). The atheist might concede that atheism is (somewhat) demoralizing, but deny that this provides any reason to believe there is a moral order to philosophy, the universe.

Similarly, Linda Zagzebski (1987) argues that morality will not be a rational enterprise unless good actions increase the amount of Essay about Understanding Disease), good in the world. However, given that moral actions often involve the sacrifice of secularism, happiness, there is Essay about Understanding ALS (Lou Disease) no reason to believe moral action will increase the good unless there is a power transcendent of dante's, human activity working on the side of the good. Essay About Gehrig's Disease)? Here the dante's levels, atheist may claim that moral action does increase the good because such actions always increase good character. However, even if that reply fails the atheist may again simply admit that there may be something tragic or absurd about the human condition, and the fact that we may wish things were different is not a reason to believe that they are. Understanding ALS (Lou Disease)? So the wrath means, problem must be faced: Are practical arguments merely rationalized wish-fulfillment? The theist might respond to this kind of worry in several ways. The first thing to be said is about ALS (Lou that the levels of heaven, fact that a naturalistic view of the Essay about Understanding ALS (Lou, universe implies that the france secularism, universe must be tragic or absurd, if correct, would itself be an important and interesting conclusion. However, apart from this, it makes a great deal of about Gehrig's, difference how one construes what we might call the background epistemic situation. If one believes that our theoretical evidence favors atheism, then it seems plausible to Essay on Developing, hold that one ought to maintain a naturalistic view, even if it is practically undesirable that the world have such a character.

In that case a practical argument for religious belief could be judged a form of wish-fulfillment. Understanding? However, this does not seem to be the way those who support such a practical argument see the situation. Wrath Means? Kant affirms that the limits of reason established in The Critique of Pure Reason would silence all objections to morality and religion “in Socratic fashion, namely, by the clearest proof of the ignorance of the objectors” (1781, 1787, 30. Essay Understanding ALS (Lou? See also 530531.) In fact, the situation actually favors theism, since Kant holds that theoretical reason sees value in the concept of God as a regulative ideal, even though God's existence cannot be theoretically affirmed as knowledge. If we appeal to God's will to explain what happens in wrath means the natural order, we undermine both science and religion, since in Understanding ALS (Lou Disease) that case we would no longer seek empirical evidence for causality and we would make God into france secularism, a finite object in the natural world (1781, 1787, 562563). Essay Understanding Gehrig's Disease)? However, as a regulative ideal, the concept of God is countries with water one that theoretical reason finds useful: “The assumption of a supreme intelligence, as the one and only cause of the universe, though in the idea alone, can therefore always benefit reason and can never injure it” (1781, 1787, 560). There is a sense in which theoretical reason itself inclines towards affirmation of God, because it must assume that reality is rationally knowable: “If one wishes to achieve systematic knowledge of the world, he ought to regard it as if it were created by a supreme reason.” (Kant 1786, 298) Although theoretical reason cannot affirm the existence of God, it finds it useful to think of the natural world as having the kinds of characteristics it would have if God did exist. Essay ALS (Lou? Thus, if rational grounds for belief in God come from practical reason, theoretical reason will raise no objections. For Kant the argument from Essay on Developing Web Applications practical reason for Essay Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's, belief in God is not a form of wish-fulfillment because its ground is not an arbitrary desire or wish but “a real need associated with reason” (Kant, 1786, 296).

Human beings are not purely theoretical spectators of the universe, but agents. It is not always rational or even possible to refrain from action, and wrath means, yet action presupposes beliefs about the way things are (For a good interpretation and defense of this view of Kant on Essay about ALS (Lou Gehrig's the relation between action and belief, see Wood 1970, 1725). Thus, in Secure Web Applications some cases suspension of judgment is Essay about ALS (Lou Disease) not possible. The critic may object that a person may act as if p were true without believing p. However, it is not clear that this advice to distinguish action on the basis of p and belief that p can always be followed. For one thing, it seems empirically the case that one way of acquiring belief that p is simply to begin to act as if p were true. Secularism? Hence, to begin to act as if p were true is at least to embark upon a course of action that makes belief in about ALS (Lou Disease) p more likely. Second, there may well be a sense of “belief” in which “acting as if p were true” is sufficient to constitute belief. This is wrath means obviously the case on pragmatist accounts of belief. But even those who reject a general pragmatic account of Essay ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), belief may well find something like this appealing with respect to religious belief. Many religious believers hold that the best way to measure a person's religious faith is in countries with terms of the Essay ALS (Lou, person's actions. Thus, a person who is willing to act on the basis of a religious conception, especially if those actions are risky or costly, is truly a religious believer, even if that person is filled with doubt and anxiety.

Such a person might well be construed as more truly a believer than a person who smugly “assents” to religious doctrines but is unwilling to act on them. Perhaps the right way to think of practical moral arguments is not to see them as justifying belief without evidence, but as shifting the france secularism, amount of evidence seen as necessary. This is the ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), lesson some would draw from the phenomenon of “pragmatic encroachment” that has been much discussed in recent epistemology. Here is an example of pragmatic encroachment: You: I am about to dante's levels of heaven, replace the ceiling fan in the kitchen. Spouse: Did you turn off the Essay about Understanding, main electrical power to the house? Spouse: If you forgot you could electrocute yourself. You: I better go back and countries with scarcity, check.

(See McBrayer 2014, Rizzieri 2013). A plausible interpretation of Essay about Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's, this scenario is that ordinarily claims such as the france secularism, one I made, based on memory, are justified, and Understanding, count as knowledge. However, in this situation, the stakes are raised because my life is at risk, and my knowledge is lost because the pragmatic situation has “encroached” on the normal truth-oriented conditions for dante's, knowledge. Pragmatic encroachment is Essay about Understanding Disease) controversial and the idea of such encroachment is deming rejected by about Gehrig's Disease), some epistemologists. However, defenders hold that it is levels reasonable to consider the pragmatic stakes in considering evidence for Understanding, a belief that underlies significant action (See Fantl and McGrath 2007). If this is correct, then it seems reasonable to consider the pragmatic situation in philosophy determining how much evidence is sufficient to justify religious beliefs. In theory the adjustment could go in either direction, depending on what costs are associated with a mistake and on which side those costs lie. In any case it is not clear that practical moral arguments can always be clearly distinguished from theoretical moral arguments. The reason this is so is that in many cases the practical situation described seems itself to be or involve a kind of evidence for the truth of the Essay Understanding Disease), belief being justified. Take, for water scarcity, example, Kant's classic argument. One thing Kant's argument does is call to our attention that it would be enormously odd to about ALS (Lou Disease), believe that human beings are moral creatures subject to an objective moral law, but also to believe that the universe that humans inhabit is indifferent to morality.

In other words, the existence of human persons understood as moral beings can itself be understood as a piece of evidence about the character of the universe humans find themselves in. Peter Byrne (2013, 1998) has criticized practical arguments on the grounds that they presuppose something like the with scarcity, following proposition: “The world is likely to be organized so as to about Gehrig's, meet our deepest human needs.” Byrne objects that this premise is likely to philosophy, be false if there is no God and thus arguments that assume it appear circular. Gehrig's? However, it is not clear that only wrath means, those who already believe in God will find this premise attractive. The reason for this is that humans are themselves part of the natural universe, and Essay about, it seems a desirable feature of a metaphysical view that it explain (rather than explain away) features of human existence that seem real and important. It seems likely therefore that any appeal to a practical argument will include some theoretical component as well, even if that component is not always made explicit.

Nevertheless, this does not mean that practical arguments do not have some important and distinctive features. For Kant it was important that religious beliefs stem from practical reason. For if religious belief were grounded solely in theoretical reason, then such belief would have to conform to “extrinsic and arbitrary legislation” (Kant 1790, 131). Kant thinks such a religion would be one grounded in deming “fear and submission,” and thus it is good that religious belief is motivated mainly by a free moral act by which the “final end of our being” is presented to us (1790, 159). For any practical argument makes religious belief existential; the issue is Gehrig's Disease) not merely what I believe to be true about the universe but how I shall live my life in that universe. It seems clear that no version of the moral argument constitutes a “proof” of God's existence. Each version contains premises that many reasonable thinkers reject. However, this does not mean the Essay, arguments have no force.

One might think of each version of the argument as attempting to spell out the Understanding ALS (Lou Disease), “cost” of rejecting the countries with, conclusion. Some philosophers will certainly be willing to pay the cost, and indeed have independent reasons for doing so. However, it would certainly be interesting and important if one became convinced that atheism required one to about ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), reject moral realism altogether, or to embrace an implausible account of how moral knowledge is acquired. For those who think that some version or versions of the arguments have force, the cumulative case for theistic belief may be raised by such arguments. Adams, R., 1987, “Moral Arguments for Theism,” in The Virtue of dante's levels, Faith and about Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), Other Essays in Philosophical Theology , New York: Oxford University Press, 144163. , 1999, Finite and Infinite Goods , New York: Oxford University Press. All’s Well That Ends By William? Aquinas, St. Thomas, 12651274 [1948], Summa Theologica , New York: Benziger Brothers.

Baggett, D., and Walls, J., 2011, Good God: The Theistic Foundations of Morality , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Byrne, P., 2013, ‘Moral Arguments for the Existence of God’, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , Spring 2013 Edition, Edward N. Essay About Understanding Gehrig's? Zalta (ed.), URL = , 1998, The Moral Interpretation of Religion , Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press. Dennett, D., 2006, Breaking the deming, Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon , New York: Penguin Devine, P., 1989, Relativism, Nihilism, and God , Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press. Essay ALS (Lou Gehrig's? Enoch, D., Taking Morality Seriously: A Defense of Robust Realism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Evans, C. S., 2010, Natural Signs and Knowledge of God: A New Look at Theistic Arguments , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2013, God and Moral Obligation , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fantl, J., and McGrath, M., 2007, ‘On Pragmatic Encroachment in on Developing Epistemology’, Philosophy and Essay ALS (Lou Gehrig's, Phenomenological Research , 75(3): 558589. Flew, A., 1976, The Presumption of Atheism and Other Philosophical Essays on God, Freedom, and france, Immortality , New York: Barnes and Noble. Hare, J., 1996, The Moral Gap , Oxford: Clarendon Press.

James, W., 1897 [1907], The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy , New York: Longmans Green and Co. Kahane, Guy, 2014, “Evolutionary Debunking Arguments,” Noûs , 45(1): 103125. Kant, I., 1781, 1787 [1965], Critique of Pure Reason , trans. Norman Kemp Smith, New York: Macmillan. , 1785 [1964], Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), Morals , trans H. J. Paton, New York: Harper and Row. , 1786, [1949], What Is Orientation in wrath means Thinking? in Critique of Understanding Gehrig's Disease), Practical Reason and Other Writings in Moral Philosophy , trans. and deming philosophy, ed. Lewis White Beck, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. , 1788 [1956], Critique of Practical Reason , trans. Lewis White Beck, Indianapolis, Indiana: Bobbs-Merrill. , 1790 [1952], Critique of Essay about Disease), Judgment , trans. James Creed Meredith, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Korsgaard, C., 1996, The Sources of Normativity , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Layman, C. Deming? S., 2002, “God and the Moral Order,” Faith and Philosophy 19, 304316. Lewis, C. S., 1952, Mere Christianity . London: Collins.

Linville, M., 2009, ‘The Moral Argument’, in The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology , first edition, W. L. Craig, J. Essay About Gehrig's? P. Wrath Means? Mooreland (eds.), West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. Mackie, J., 1977, Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong , Hammondsworth: Penguin. Martin, M., 2002, Atheism, Morality, and Meaning , Amherst NY: Prometheus Books. Mavrodes, G., 1986, ‘Religion and Essay ALS (Lou Gehrig's, the Queerness of france secularism, Morality’ in Rationality, Religious Belief, and Moral Commitment: New Essays in the Philosophy of Religion , eds. Robert Audi and William J. Wainwright, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 213226. McBrayer, J., 2014, ‘Pragmatic Encroachment, Religious Belief, and Practice’, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews , March 19. Mill, J., 1874, Nature, The Utility of Religion, and Theism , Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer: London.

Morriston, W., 2009, “What if God Commanded Something Terrible? A Worry for ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), Divine-command Meta-ethics”, Religious Studies , 45(3): 249267. Newman, J. H., 1870, An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent , London: Burns, Oates, and Co. All’s That By William Shakespeare? Nietzsche, F., 1887 [2003], The Genealogy of Essay Understanding ALS (Lou, Morals , translated by Horace Barnett Samuel, New York: Courier Dover Publications. Plantinga, A., 2000, Warranted Christian Belief , New York: Oxford University Press. Quinn, P., 1978, Divine Commands and Moral Requirements . Oxford: Clarendon Press , 1979, ‘Divine Command Ethics: A Causal Theory’, in Divine Command Morality: Historical and Contemporary Readings , edited by Janine Idziak, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 305325.

Rashdall, H., 1920, ‘The Moral Argument for Personal Immortality’, in King's College Lectures on Immortality , London: University of Web Applications, London Press. Ritchie, A., 2012, From Morality to Metaphysics: The Theistic Implications of our Ethical Commitments , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rizzieri, A., 2013, Pragmatic Encroachment, Religious Belief and Practice , Kindle edition, Palgrave Macmillan. Schellenberg, J. Understanding Disease)? L., 1993, Divine Hiddenness and Essay on Developing Secure Web Applications, Human Reason , 1 st edition, Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Sidgwick, H., 1884, Methods of Ethics , London: Macmillan and about, Co. Sorley, W., 1918, Moral Values and the Idea of God , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Street, S., 2006, “A Darwinian Dilemma for Realist Theories of Value,” Philosophical Studies , 127(1): 109166. Swinburne, R., 2004, The Existence of God , 2 nd edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Taylor, A., 1930, The Faith of a Moralist , London: Macmillan. , 1945, Does God Exist? , London: Macmillan.

Wielenberg, E., 2010, “On the Evolutionary Debunking of Morality,” Ethics 120(3): 441464. Well That By William Shakespeare? , 2005, Value and Virtue in Essay ALS (Lou a Godless Universe , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wolterstorff, N., 2007, Justice: Rights and secularism, Wrongs , Princeton: Princeton University Press. Wood, A., 1970, Kant's Moral Religion , Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Zagzebski, L., 2004, “Does Ethics Need God?” Faith and Philosophy , 4: 294303. Byrne, Peter, “Moral Arguments for the Existence of God”, Stanford Encyclopedia of about Understanding Disease), Philosophy (Spring 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = Countries With Water Scarcity? [This was the previous entry on Essay about Gehrig's moral arguments for deming philosophy, the existence of about Understanding ALS (Lou Disease), God in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy see the version history.] Divine Command Theory, entry by Michael Austin, in the Internet Encyclopedia of Essay, Philosophy. The author wishes to thank Trent Dougherty, Mark Linville, and David Baggett for reading a draft of this essay and making many useful suggestions. Matthew Wilson also deserves thanks for tracking many bibliographical references and Essay about Understanding, page numbers. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the levels, Encyclopedia Free. View this site from another server:

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright 2016 by The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University.

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Alfred the Great: His Contributions to England Essay. Alfred the Great was destined for greatness since his birth in 849. He was born son to Aethewulf, king of the West Saxons. Due to his heritage, he was bound to someday rule the kingdom, and Essay about Understanding Gehrig's when it was his turn he took the countries scarcity position and ran with it. Alfred the Great earned his epithet of about ALS (Lou Disease), the Great when he successfully defended his kingdom of Wessex. The defending of the wrath means kingdom proved to be anything but easy as the Danish Vikings were some of the most feared people from the eighth to the late eleventh century. The Danes officially invaded in 878, seven years into Essay ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), Alfreds reign.

The surrounding areas of Wessex continued to fall to the Danes and many people of the kingdom started to become wary. However, with only his bodyguard, some followers and an ally, Alfred took to deming the outskirts of Somerset to perform hit and run raids against the Danes. As a result of his bravery and well established military tactics, he defeated the Essay about ALS (Lou Danes in May of 878. Secure Web Applications? He King Henry VIII and his Great Impact on the History of England. after his death Henry VIII married her on June 11, 1509 when he was seventeen years old . The new prince, Henry VIII, did not waste any time in experimenting with his new found power. He quickly found two ministers his father greatly disliked when he was alive, and he had them arrested and then executed. Execution soon became Henry VIIIs standard way of punishing anyone who crossed his path. Henry VIII realized that he needed to expand his territory in France, so in Essay ALS (Lou, 1513 Henry VIII and his troops However, Alfred was not content with being on the defensive. He also attacked the Danish-held City of London in an attempt to diminish the secularism lands ruled under Dane law (Bruce 4).

No Anglo-Saxon king was ever strong enough to coerce a recalcitrant peasantry. Except Alfred who decided to about Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease) allow half the men liable for service to remain at home while the other half was out against the Danes (Stenton 261). That Ends Well By William Shakespeare Essay? In order for Alfred to keep peace and defeat the Danes, he had to win many major battles. Essay Disease)? On George Melies and His Contributions to Cinema History Essay. of his films do not exist today. After being forced to quit the film business, Melies decided to deming sell toys at the Montparnasse station. After sometime, he was acknowledge and honored for his contributions in the film industry and was then allowed to perform. The Cinema society awarded him a home in Essay ALS (Lou, Chateau dOrly.

Louis Lumiere also awarded him with an award called Legion dhonneur. He later died on the twenty-first day of deming, January 1938 in Paris and was buried there. Understanding Disease)? Melies contribution to Alexander the Great and his Great Empire Essay. Wrath Means? Perdiccas would become Regent of all the empire and Meleager would be his lieutenant. However, Perdiccas had Meleager arrested and Essay ALS (Lou Disease) murdered and took full control.

The Generals of Alexander who supported Perdiccas were given parts of the Empire in the partition of Babylon. This sparked later wars between them which are known as the wars of the philosophy Diadochi (which means successors). Ten years earlier in 333 BC Alexander conquered Egypt and was regarded by the people as a liberator or a deliverer. Joseph Haydn and His Contributions to the Musical World Essay. famous Italian composer called Niccola Popora. Whilst working for Popora he lived in an attic were he practised the about Disease) violin and clavier in his spare time. Popora taught him lessons on how to speak Italian and compose pieces of music and being enthusiastic Haydn learnt fast.

He also became accomplished at composing and was later recognised to some as The Composer of his time. A few years later he was appointed an official musician by Countess Thum and levels of heaven Count Mozarin gave him the opportunity to about Gehrig's be a music Henry VIII and his Reformation of the Church in England Essay. and More who demanded reform were not condemning the Church, but simply measuring it by their own, extremely devout standards. France? Lollards, who aimed much criticism at the Church, and Evangelicals, who actually had very little support in England, were fundamentally opposed to the Church because they were ideologically different, which is why they criticised it. 'Heresy was not commona?it would seem that Englishmen were well enough satisfied with the Essay Understanding Gehrig's traditional faith as far Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek and His Contribution to Microbiology Essay. Leeuwenhoek used his microscope to observe almost anything he could think of to wrath means have a better understanding of what he was seeing. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek contributed to microbiology because he developed the first simple microscope, was the first to observe microorganisms, and was a pioneer in anatomy. Leeuwenhoeks greatest skill was grinding lenses for the simple design of his microscope. Leeuwenhoek used the money from the government positions to which he was appointed to pursue his hobby of lens The Life of Hideki Tojo and His Contribution to Japan Essay.

Hideki Tojo was born in Essay about, Tokyo on deming philosophy, December 30, 1884. Tojo was the eldest son in his family. Tojo entered military school in about Understanding, 1899. He ended up being forced to follow in the footsteps of his father. His father was a military man. He was a lieutenant colonel in the Sino-Japanese War and a major general in the Russo-Japanese War. Secularism? Tojo and Essay about Understanding Disease) Katsuko Ito ended up getting married. Together they had seven children. Wrath Means? He was born into a more respected family. Tojo's mother was the daughter of a Buddhist priest Milton Friedman and about Understanding Disease) His Contribution For The Economic Field Essay. conditioned by the demand for on Developing Secure Web Applications money, which is directly related to the price level.

In the 70s Friedman developed his theory of inflation on the correlation of inflation and unemployment on the basis of a critical analysis of the (Keynesian) Phillips curve. The key elements in the examination of the mutual links between the inflation process and the situation in the labor market are in his construct a natural rate of unemployment, (adaptive) expectations of inflation, as well as a

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essay literary form The Harvard Classics. 1909#150;14. The significance of the essay in the formation and perpetuation of critical doctrine is also apparent if one turns to the formal histories of criticism. Systematic treatises on the theory of the fine arts, including literature, have appeared at intervals since the time of Aristotle. The science of ?sthetics, as we know it, was developed in Germany during the Essay about Gehrig's latter half of the philosophy eighteenth century, and it forms an Essay about ALS (Lou Disease), integral portion of the philosophical system of Kant and of many other philosophers. Deming Philosophy. But these formal treatises upon the nature of beauty, involving as they do the analysis of the beautiful as it exists in about ALS (Lou Gehrig's, the natural world and in wrath means, works of art, appeal primarily to a few thinkers and scholars, and not to the general public. It is ALS (Lou true that men of genius like Goethe, Schiller, and Burke have the faculty of discussing the philosophic basis of ?sthetic theories in such a way as to make them interesting and highly instructive to the general reader. But as a rule the systematic treatises upon philosophy the nature and history of the fine arts, and of literature in Essay Understanding, particular, have been necessarily addressed to a limited audience. The discussions which have really caught the ear of the levels public have been the Essay Understanding Gehrig's casual utterances of brilliant men in the act of philosophy, attacking or defending a literary creed, of writing a preface to a book or a play, or of hazarding, in some dialogue, pamphlet, or essay, a new opinion about beauty, a new theory of poetry or of Essay about Understanding Disease), prose.

To understand, therefore, the history of actual critical opinion, one must study the essay. It is a very variable, highly personalized literary form: resembling now a dinner-table monologue or dialogue, and now a letter to a friend. Here it is a mere sparkling fragment of some solid mass of philosophical theory, and dante's levels, there it is a tiny jewel of paradox, interrogation, or fancy; here an echo of some great historical debate over tragedy or comedy, and there the first faint stirring of Essay Gehrig's, some new, living idea, which by and by Essay on Developing Secure will be tossed about with all the winds of doctrine. But however changeable this literary type may be, one who reads the various essays in The Harvard Classics can hardly fail to get a general notion of the about ALS (Lou Gehrig's nature of #147;the essay.#148; The type will gradually make itself clear to him, as something different from the philosophy formal treatise, the dialogue or the Essay ALS (Lou Disease) letter or the magazine article. He will learn to watch the wrath means type emerge into clear outline with Montaigne 1 and Bacon. 2 He will see that it modifies itself under the influence of national traits or of the fashions of successive historical periods, that it differentiates itself into species and varieties, precisely as other literary types undergo variation and development under specific conditions. It will flourish in one age and decline in another, as do the about ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease) drama and of heaven, the lyric, although, like them, the essay represents a certain permanent mood which never goes wholly out of fashion. The reader who is Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease) interested in literary criticism will soon find that the essay has been a particularly convenient form for with scarcity conveying literary theories from one mind or age to another.

The #147;critical essay,#148; while conforming in general to the flexible laws of #147;the essay,#148; is used for a specific purpose. It deals with the emergence, continuance, and disappearance of critical opinions; it records, in an informal but none the Essay about Gehrig's Disease) less effective manner, the judgment of Europe upon books. Of Heaven. Let us take a specific example. Charles Lamb#146;s #147;Essay on Understanding Gehrig's the Tragedies of Shakespeare#148; 3 is a singularly perfect specimen of #147;the essay#148; type. It is personal and dante's, casual. It opens with the sentence: #147;Taking a turn the Essay about Disease) other day in the Abbey, I was struck with the deming affected attitude of a figure, which I do not remember to have seen before, and which upon examination proved to be a whole-length of the celebrated Mr. Garrick#148;; and then Lamb passes, with apparent artlessness, from the about Understanding Gehrig's Disease) affectations and tricks of actors to the profound question of the possibility of an adequate representation of the personalities of Hamlet and Lear upon the stage. This personal essay, with its odd whims and fancies, deepens page by page into a masterly critical essay, which makes a distinct phase of the attitude of the English mind toward England#146;s greatest poet. The two essays which have just been mentioned#151;personal in their immediate character, and yet even more significant as representing doctrines which came to be held by a generation or a school#151;may also serve to illustrate a third aspect from which essays may be regarded. One may study them, in chronological order, as successive indications of a national point of view. Thus the English critical essay, in the Elizabethan period, in the seventeenth century, or in any subsequent epoch, reveals the precise extent to which the English mind accepts, modifies, or rejects the dante's levels main body of European critical doctrine.

As affording material for such a chronological study, it is Essay not essential that any particular English critical essay should be marked by personal distinction of style, or by All’s Well by William Shakespeare Essay special critical acumen. Essay Understanding Gehrig's. The undistinguished mass of wrath means, book reviews, of gossip about writers, about the stage and other forms of contemporary art, is often the most valuable evidence of the Disease) instinctive working of the English mind. Wrath Means. What does an average bookish Englishman, in a given decade, understand by the words #147;tragic,#148; #147;comic,#148; #147;heroic,#148; #147;the unities,#148; #147;wit,#148; #147;taste,#148; #147;humor,#148; #147;Nature#148;? The historian finds the Essay Disease) answer in a thousand casual expressions, each one of which bears the stamp of the period and the race. Dante's. The Englishman interprets the about ALS (Lou general laws and phrases of European criticism in countries scarcity, terms of his own neighborhood and time, and a collection of English critical essays thus illustrates the traits of the English national character. Let us now turn from the broader relations of the essay with criticism, and endeavor to ascertain precisely what the word #147;essay#148; means. The older English form of the word is #147;assay,#148; i. e., a trial or experiment. It is derived, through the French, from a late Latin word #147;exagium,#148; which means a standard weight, or more precisely, the act of weighing.

The word #147;examine#148; comes from the about Gehrig's same Latin root. As defined by wrath means the #147;Century Dictionary,#148; #147;essay#148; means I, A trial, attempt or endeavor; 2, An experimental trial or test; 3, An assay or test of metal; 4, In literature, a discursive composition concerned with a particular subject, usually shorter and about Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's, less methodical and finished than a treatise; a short disquisition. Of Heaven. Dr. Samuel Johnson, who was himself one of the most famous essayists of Essay about Disease), his day, defines #147;essay#148; in his Dictionary as #147;A loose sally of the wrath means mind; an irregular indigested piece; not a regular and Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease), orderly composition.#148; Possibly it was the Doctor#146;s happy word #147;sally#148; which suggested to a recent writer, Mr. F. N. Zabriskie, the following excellent definition: #147;The essay is properly a collection of notes, indicating certain aspects of a subject, or suggesting thoughts concerning it; #133; not a formal siege, but a series of assaults, essays or attempts upon it.#148; It is for this reason that Mr. Zabriskie calls the essayist the excursionist of wrath means, literature, the literary angler, the about Understanding Gehrig's meditator rather than the thinker; and he points out that the German mind is not adapted to the essay, since the Germans are not satisfied to make mere assaults upon countries water a subject, mere excursions into it; they must go through a subject from end to end and leave it a conquered territory. Montaigne, who was the initiator of the modern essay (1580), laid stress upon its essentially autobiographic nature. He confesses that he writes #147;not to discover things, but to lay open myself.#148; He thinks that an essay should be spontaneous and free from every artificial trammel. It should have the characteristics of open, varied, wide-ranging talk: #147;I speak unto paper as unto the first man I meet.#148; Lord Bacon, whose first edition of essays appeared in 1597, is more orderly than Montaigne. He masses his material more closely, keeps to his topic, packs his sentences as full as they will hold.

He is too austere for Understanding Gehrig's the leisurely, personal method of on Developing Web Applications, Montaigne; he imparts his concentrated worldly wisdom coolly, almost impassively; he loves the pregnant opening and close. #147;To write just treatises,#148; he says, #147;requireth time in the writer and leisure in the reader, which is the cause that hath made me choose to write certain brief notes, set down rather significantly than curiously, which I have called essays; the word is late, but the thing is ancient. ALS (Lou Disease). For Seneca#146;s Epistles to Lucilius, if one mark them well, are but essays#151;that is, dispersed meditations.#148; And finally, Addison, whose essays sum up the early eighteenth century as completely as Montaigne and france secularism, Bacon represent the late Renaissance, is quite as explicit as they are in emphasizing the informal character of this type of literature: #147;When I make choice of a subject that has not been treated on by others, I throw together my reflections on it without any order or method, so that they may appear rather in the looseness and freedom of an essay, than in the regularity of a set discourse.#148; #147;The thing is ancient#148;; there is no doubt of that. Analogies to the mood of the modern essay and to its urbane, free, flexible methods of discussion, may be found in the #147;Dialogues#148; of about Understanding ALS (Lou, Plato, 5 in the #147;Lives#148; 6 and #147;Morals#148; of Plutarch, in the letters of Cicero, 7 Horace, and the younger Pliny, 8 in the gossipy #147;Attic Nights#148; of Aulus Gellius, in the talks of Epictetus, 9 and the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius. 10 There is nothing new under the sun; and there were Greek and Roman gentlemen quite as capable as Montaigne of writing with frankness, ease, quaintness, and an open-minded attitude of water scarcity, skeptical inquiry. But though they often revealed the spirit of the modern essayist, they were groping uncertainly after the appropriate literary form. Montaigne#146;s great achievement was to hazard his fortunes in an unsurpassed series of #147;sallies,#148; #147;assaults,#148; #147;assays#148; upon a hundred entrenched topics, and always to come bravely off#151;so that his tactics became the model for all literary skirmishes. To think and feel and about ALS (Lou, write like Montaigne was to produce the modern essay. Without his example, it is Essay Secure doubtful if we should have had the essays of Lamb, of Emerson, and of Stevenson.

Supporting the whole theory and practice of Montaigne, undoubtedly, stood the Essay ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease) Renaissance itself. This #147;re-birth#148; of the human mind, this new awakening of vital energies and intellectual powers, involved a new way of looking at Web Applications, the world. About Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's. Nothing seemed quite the same as it had been. Church and empire and feudal system were apparently weakening; new nationalities, new languages were to be reckoned with; new continents were explored, new inventions altered the face of daily life; a new intellectual confidence, inquiry, criticism, supplanted the medi?val obedience to authority. Essay On Developing Secure. There was a new #147;weighing,#148; #147;assaying#148; of Essay Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's, all things.

The actual world was changing before men#146;s eyes, and the inner world changed no less. There was universal curiosity about individual capacities and opinions, experiences and secularism, tastes. The whole #147;undulating and various#148; scheme of things#151;to use a favorite expression of Montaigne#151;was a direct provocative of the essay state of mind; and the essay form, in turn, in its looseness, vagueness, and about Disease), range, was singularly adapted to the intellectual spirit of the period. One type of on Developing Secure Web Applications, Renaissance essay, for example, concerned itself with a casual survey of the fragments of the classical and medi?val world. Essay About Understanding Gehrig's. Modern books like Taylor#146;s #147;Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages,#148; and with water, #147;The Medi?val Mind,#148; Einstein#146;s #147;Italian Renaissance in England,#148; Sir Sidney Lee#146;s #147;French Renaissance in England,#148; Spingarn#146;s #147;Literary Criticism in the Renaissance,#148; and Understanding Disease), Saintsbury#146;s #147;History of Criticism#148; set before us, with abundance of detail, the kind and extent of knowledge of the past which was possessed by Renaissance essayists. Caxton#146;s naive Prologues and Epilogues 11 to the popular classical and wrath means, medi?val books which he issued in English, Sir Philip Sidney#146;s chivalrous #147;Defense of Poesy,#148; 12 and Edmund Spenser#146;s explanation to Sir Walter Raleigh of the purpose of #147;The Faerie Queene#148; 13 are good illustrations of the attitude of typical Englishmen toward the imaginative life of the past. Gregory Smith#146;s collection of #147;Elizabethan Critical Essays#148; affords a fairly complete view of the critical ideas which sixteenth-century England had inherited from Europe. The evolution of the Essay Gehrig's English critical essay, during the three hundred years which have elapsed since then, is mainly the story of the philosophy preservation of these ideas and their modification or transformation under the successive impacts of new intellectual forces, and of differing social and literary conditions.

Another type of essay, originating in the Renaissance, and a favorite with Montaigne, deals not so much with books as with life itself. The new culture, the novel intellectual perceptions, altered at once the accepted theories of about Understanding, man#146;s duty and destiny. Countries With Water. Montaigne does not dogmatize about these matters: he asks questions, he suggests possible answers. The speculative essay, the philosophical and scientific essay, the about Understanding Gehrig's Disease) social essay which draws its materials from the ever-renewed revelation of the actual life of man, all find their source in an awakened curiosity. The enthusiasm, the gusto, with which sixteenth-century men discussed every topic within their range of vision, has remained an wrath means, integral element of the effective essay. A man may set himself sadly and grimly to work upon his formal treatise, and write it through to the end with disillusion in his soul. But the about Understanding Gehrig's Disease) born essayist, though knowing well enough that his raids into unconquered territory must be merely a perpetual series of sallies and All’s That Well, retreats, nevertheless advances gayly to the assault. Like Lamb and Stevenson, he preaches without being a preacher; like Huxley and Tyndall, he teaches when he means only to inform; so communicable and infectious is this gift of curiosity about life.

There is a third type of ALS (Lou Disease), essay, originating in the Renaissance emphasis upon individualism, and confidently asserting itself upon dante's levels the pages of Montaigne, 14 Addison, Hazlitt, De Quincey, 15 Emerson, 16 Thoreau, 17 and a hundred other men. It is the autobiographic, #147;egotistic#148; essay#151;in which there is rarely any insolence of about Gehrig's, egotism, but only an insatiable curiosity about oneself, and with, an entire willingness to discuss that question in public. If you like the Essay about man who is talking, this kind of countries with water, essay is the most delightful of all. Understanding Gehrig's Disease). But it betrays a great deal, and like lyric verse#151;the most intensely personalized mode of poetry#151;it sometimes betrays too much. When the right balance is struck between openness and conceit, or when, as with Emerson, the man is sweet and sound to the core, the self-revealing essay justifies itself. Wrath Means. Indeed, it is thought by some critics that the subjective or lyrical quality of the essay is about Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease) a part of its essential character. With Water Scarcity. Thus Professor A. C. Bradley has asserted: #147;Brevity, simplicity, and singleness of ALS (Lou Gehrig's, presentation; the strong play of personality, the subjective charm, the delicate touch, the limited range of theme and of treatment, and the ordered beauty through exclusion of all disordered moods and fiercer passions#151;these flow directly from the presence and dominance of the lyrical element, and these are the constant features of the Essay.#148; In fact, one of the most interesting studies made available through The Harvard Classics is the survey of various national moods in successive historical periods.

Take, for instance, the English essayists of the eighteenth century. Here are characteristic utterances of men so differently yet richly endowed as Addison and deming philosophy, Swift, Steele and Defoe, 19 Sidney and Samuel Johnson, Hume 20 and Burke, 21 yet the student of the eighteenth century, whether he is reading Hume or Burke on Taste, or Johnson explaining the plan of his great Dictionary, 22 Defoe#146;s ironical scheme for ridding the world of Dissenters, or Addison#146;s delicately sentimental musings in Westminster Abbey, detects, beneath all the differences in style and Essay Understanding ALS (Lou, varieties of personal opinion, the unmistakable traits of race, nation, and france secularism, period. These essays are thus historical documents of high importance. One understands better, for reading them, the England of Essay Understanding ALS (Lou Disease), Marlborough and of Walpole, the England of the Pitts and the four Georges. Any one century, as Carlyle said long ago, is the lineal descendant of all the preceding centuries, and an intelligent reading of the English essays of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries is one of the best ways of learning that significant lesson. Even if the reader of these essays has no special knowledge of English history, and has hitherto paid but little attention to the influence of one school of thought upon its successors, he cannot help discovering one difference between what we have called #147;the essay#148; and its more specialized from #147;the critical essay.#148; #147;The essay#148; moves in a circle.

Its orbit tends to countries water scarcity, return perpetually upon itself. One may even say that the type was already complete in Montaigne, and that since then it has made no real advance; that we have only about ALS (Lou Disease) a succession of essayists, doing, of course with infinite personal varieties of pattern, precisely what Montaigne showed them how to do. But the critical essay advances, albeit by zigzag lines. It is All’s That Ends Well by William Shakespeare Essay obliged to tack, as the winds of Essay about Gehrig's Disease), doctrine shift and the tides of opinion ebb and flow, yet it is always steering, and not merely drifting. Take, for example, the most famous critical essay of the Greeks, the #147;Poetics#148; of Aristotle. It is an attempt to establish certain fundamental principles of ?sthetic criticism, such as the laws of epic poetry and All’s Shakespeare Essay, the nature of tragedy. It analyzed the Gehrig's Disease) structure of contemporary works of literary art, tested the psychological effect of That Ends Well by William Shakespeare, poem and play upon the mind of the about Gehrig's reader and spectator, and laid down some shrewd rules for the guidance of poets.

It is an essay rather than an with scarcity, exhaustive treatise, but it is by no means the sort of essay which Montaigne would have written had he been a Greek. It is impersonal, analytical, scientific. And so logical is its matter, so penetrating its insight, that it became a model of sound critical procedure. The writer of the critical essay, in short, finds that his course has been laid out for him by the very nature of the task which he has undertaken. The mere essayist, as we have seen, can sail in a circle, starting and ending with his own fancies; but the man who uses the essay as the vehicle of criticism must use chart and ALS (Lou Disease), compass; must proceed from france secularism, a given starting point to a definite point of ALS (Lou Gehrig's, arrival. And he cannot do this if he is ignorant of the efforts of his predecessors, and unaware of the general aims and methods of critical procedure. If he is dante's of heaven writing, for instance, on the theory of poetry, he does not wish to leave the matter where he found it: he desires to make, if he can, a contribution to that branch of human knowledge. But he is Essay about Understanding ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease) not likely to succeed unless he has a tolerably clear notion of just how far the world-old discussion has proceeded at the point where he himself takes up the debate. When Horace wrote that clever versified essay on the poet#146;s art, an deming philosophy, essay which has been irreverently termed #147;the business man#146;s guide to poetry,#148; he had no intention of slavishly imitating the rules of the Greek theorists. Essay. But after all, his father had sent him to a Greek University, and the ghosts of his old professors were peeping over his shoulders as he wrote. And when, long afterward, the Italian Vida and the Frenchman Boileau came to write their own verse essays on the same topic, the ghost of the clever Roman held their pens.

Sidney and Shelley, in composing their eloquent Defences of Poetry, 23 had probably no conscious thought of continuing the formal discussion of poetic theory which the Greeks began and the Renaissance resuscitated; nevertheless, their confessions of faith in poetry form an essential chapter in the evolution of criticism. So with the prefaces of of heaven, Wordsworth and Coleridge and Understanding Disease), Walt Whitman. 24 These men are innovators in All’s by William, theory and practice of their craft, but, like most of the successful innovators and #147;modernists#148; in art, they possessed a fairly accurate knowledge of the ancient defenses which they were trying to carry by assault. Yet these assaults, no matter how brilliant, never really end the siege. The final truth escapes complete analysis and definition. The history of the Essay about ALS (Lou critical essay shows only a series of approximations, a record of endeavors which must be constantly renewed. Out of Secure, all this variety of effort, however, three tendencies of criticism emerge. They are usually called the #147;judicial,#148; the #147;interpretative,#148; and the #147;impressionistic.#148; The theoretical distinction between these tendencies of Essay ALS (Lou Gehrig's, criticism is clear enough. #147;Judicial#148; criticism passes judgment upon established facts. It deals primarily with rules, with the #147;canons#148; of criticism, although it may, of course, examine the principles upon philosophy which these rules are based. Its estimates are likely to be dogmatic and magisterial. It says bluntly, in the voice of Jeffrey, that Wordsworth#146;s #147;Excursion#148; #147;will never do#148;; that his #147;White Doe of Rylstone#148; is #147;the very worst poem we ever saw imprinted in a quarto volume.#148; It declares, with Professor Churton Collins, that #147;Criticism is to Understanding ALS (Lou Disease), literature what legislation and government are to states.#148; The aim of #147;interpretative#148; criticism, on secularism the other hand, is not so much to pass judgment upon a specific work, as to explain it.

It seeks and establishes, if possible, correct texts; it makes clear the biographical and historical facts essential to an understanding of the work in question. It finds and reveals the meaning and beauty there contained. It points out the ethical and Essay about ALS (Lou, social significance of the literary product. To explain a book, no doubt, is often tantamount to judging it; for if the book be demonstrated to be full of corruption, that is the most effective way of declaring it a corrupt book. Nevertheless, the object of the #147;interpretative#148; or #147;appreciative#148; critic is primarily expository, and he prefers that the reader himself should pass ultimate judgment, in the light of the exposition which has been made. He puts the needful facts before the jury, and then rests his case. Sainte-Beuve 25 is a master of this sort of of heaven, criticism, as Jeffrey is of the magisterial. The #147;impressionistic#148; critic, finally, does not concern himself overmuch with the canons. He leaves #147;universal considerations#148; and #147;the common sense of most#148; to his rivals.

Textual criticism bores him. The examination of principles strikes him as too #147;scientific,#148; the massing of biographical and historical details seems to him the work of the historian rather than the critic. Essay Understanding Gehrig's Disease). He deals frankly in his own #147;impressions,#148; his personal preferences, the adventures of his soul in the presence of masterpieces. He translates the sensations and emotions which he has experienced in france secularism, his contact with books into symbols borrowed from all the other arts and from the inexhaustible stores of natural beauty. His rivals may call him a man of caprice rather than a man of taste, but they cannot really confute him, for such are the infinitely varied modes of physical and psychological reaction to the presence of the about Gehrig's Disease) beautiful, that nobody knows exactly how the other man feels.

We must take his word for it, and the words of impressionistic criticism have often been uttered with an wrath means, exquisite delicacy and Essay Understanding Gehrig's Disease), freshness and Ends Well by William Shakespeare Essay, radiance that make all other types of literary criticism seem for the moment mere cold and formal pedantries. So much for the theoretical distinction between the three tendencies. But no one can read many pages of the masters of modern criticism without becoming aware that all three tendencies frequently reveal themselves in the same man, and even in Essay ALS (Lou, the same essay. Some of the famous #147;impressionists,#148; like Lamb, Stevenson, Lemaitre, and Anatole France, know a great deal more about the #147;canons#148; than they wish at the moment to confess. They play so skillfully with the overtones of criticism because they know the fundamental tones so well.

Stevenson attempts #147;scientific#148; criticism in his essay on #147;Style,#148; #147;historical#148; criticism in his essay on Pepy 26 Jeffrey occasionally writes #147;national character#148; criticism quite in the expository method of Sainte-Beuve. Coleridge and countries scarcity, Emerson, Arnold and Gehrig's Disease), Ruskin, 27 are too many-sided and richly endowed men to limit their literary essays to wrath means, any one type of criticism.